Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Arts and Humanities
History of the Environment
American Environmental History
Terms in this set (171)
"Every Buffalo Dead is an Indian Gone"
said by european militarist about how to get rid of the indians, started a country-wide hunt for buffalo.
"a new, distinctively American, post-romantic, industrial version of the pastoral design"
idealized plot of 160 acres (one quarter square mile) on which a diverse number of vegetation could be grown. While applicable in the East, was not realistic for central and western states.
"Rain Follows the Plow"
the conventional name for a now-discredited theory of climatology that was popular throughout the American West and Australia during the late 19th century. The basic premise of the theory was that human habitation and agriculture through homesteading effected a permanent change in the climate of arid and semi-arid regions, making these regions more humid. The theory was widely promoted in the 1870s as a justification for the settlement of the Great Plains, a region previously known as the "Great American Desert". According to the theory, increased human settlement in the region and cultivation of soil would result in an increased rainfall over time, rendering the land more fertile and lush as the population increased. As later historical records of rainfall indicated, the theory was based on faulty evidence arising from brief climatological fluctuations. The theory was later refuted by climatologists and is now definitively regarded as pure superstition.
"The Port Manteau Biota"
the invasion of europeans on the new world with diseases and germs.
"The Pristine Myth"
Idea presented by William Denevan about the ideology that settlers had of the New World being a new paradise or Eden. The pristine myth is the idea that in 1492 the Americas were pristine, or to say, they were unviolated. This idea works off of the premise that it is the settlers who sullied the land and started the erosion and deforestation. The myth in this is the idea that the Indians were actually quite successful in deteriorating the grasslands all on their own. This idea proclaims that it is possible that the land was healthier in the late 1700s than in the early 1500s.
"Virgin Soil Epidemic"
refers to an epidemic resulting from the introduction of a disease into a place where it does not occur or spread naturally. When a population has not had contact with a particular pathogen, individuals in that population have not built up any immunity to that organism, and have not received immunity passed from mother to child.Diseases introduced to the Americas by European colonizers—and their African slaves—include smallpox, yellow fever, measles and malaria, as well as new strains of typhus and influenza
1876 Corliss Engine
a steam engine usually stationary & used to provide mechanical power to line shafting; a steam engine, fitted with rotary valves and with variable valve timing patented in 1849, invented by and named after the American engineer George Henry Corliss; Corliss engines were typically used as stationary engines to provide mechanical power to line shafting in factories and mills and to drive dynamos to generate electricity.
Indians gather acorns and grind them into flour, from which they make a healthy mush. Archaeologists have found evidence of ceramics, cremations, pictographs, stone tools, clay-lined hearths and elaborate stone walls, some built for defense and others for irrigation. Indians gather acorns from at least six species of oaks, collect fresh fruits and vegetables, hunt and fish. Acorns from California oak trees were an important food source. The agave plant was another major resource for food as well as raw materials for a number of uses. Seafood supplemented their diet.
Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
the taming of animals through generations of breeding to live in close association with humans as a pet or work animal
labor done by the use of animals; pulling carts, tilling fields; where most power comes from
the dung and urine of cattle, horses, poultry, and other farm animals. It improves soil structure, adds organic nitrogen, and stimulates beneficial soil bacteria and fungi.
belief in spirits and nature, Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life.
Barbed wire was the first wire technology capable of restraining cattle. Wire fences were cheaper and easier to erect than their alternatives; Ranchers moved out on the plains, and needed to fence their land in against encroaching farmers and other ranchers. The railroads throughout the growing West needed to keep livestock off their tracks, and farmers needed to keep stray cattle from trampling their crops. Traditional fence materials used in the Eastern U.S., like wood and stone, were expensive to use in the large open spaces of the plains, and hedging was not reliable in the rocky, clay and rain-starved dusty soils. A cost-effective alternative was needed to make cattle operations profitable.
Bering Strait Crossing
One of the major theories for the migration into North America, says that large game hunters crossed Bering Land Bridge, distinctive tool type.
Buffalo hunting (hunting of the American bison) was an activity fundamental to the Plains Indian tribes of the United States, which was later adopted by American professional hunters, leading to the near-extinction of the species. The American bison (Bison bison), also commonly known as the American buffalo, is a North American species of bison that once roamed the grasslands of North America in massive herds, became nearly extinct by a combination of commercial hunting and slaughter in the 19th century and introduction of bovine diseases from domestic cattle, and has made a recent resurgence largely restricted to a few national parks and reserves.
the epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe;
farm controlled by large businesses, managed by professionals; very large farms in the United States performing large-scale operations, mostly growing and harvesting wheat. Bonanza farms were made possible by a number of factors including: the efficient new farming machinery of the 1870s, the cheap abundant land available during that time period, the growth of eastern markets in the U.S., and the completion of most major railroads. and raiseing massive quantites of single cash crops
Book of Genesis
the Book of Genesis is answers clearly how sin spread in the world following the sin of Adam and Eve., First book of the Bible containing the stories of Creation, the Fall and promise of redemption and the story of Abraham and Sarah
Boone and Crocket Club
(1888) Formed hunter/conservationists that focuses on trophy animals; a hunter-conservationist organization, founded in the United States in 1887 by Theodore Roosevelt. The club was named in honor of hunter-heroes of the day Daniel Boone and Davy Crockett, whom the club's founders viewed as pioneering men who hunted extensively while opening the Frontier, but realized the consequences of over harvesting game.
They were a group of Boston families who joined to form one of the earliest and most powerful joint-capital ventures. They eventually came to dominate the textile industry, the railroad, insurance, and banking business' in all of Massachusetts. With Pride the Boston Associates considered their textile mill in Lowell, Massachusetts a showplace factory. The labor there was mostly New England farm girls who were supervised on and off the job and worked from "dark to dark."
South Fork of the Chicago River became a notorious open sewer for the Chicago Stock Yards. The bubbles were caused by decaying animal carcasses hurled into the stream. Bubbly Creek's decaying riverbed continues to bubble to this day.
..., A bacterial disease of fleas that can be transmitted by flea bites to rodents and humans; humans in late stages of the illness can spread the bacteria by coughing. High mortality rate and hard to contain. Disastrous.
Buffalo had dominated the Great Plains before white Americans moved in, and Native Americans had long lived off the buffalo while sustaining their population. However, whites killed off many buffalo for food and fun, and the many cattle bred in the area contributed to the plummeting of the buffalo population.
chasers or runners lead animals towards cliff where others waited behind rocks and tress. people waved blankets and shouted forcing animals over edge of cliff. others waited at the bottom of the cliff to kill the crippled animals
an ancient settlement of southern Indians, located near present day St. Louis, it served as a trading center for 40,000 at its peak in A.D. 1200.
the organic circulation of carbon from the atmosphere into organisms and back again, the circulation and reutilization of carbon atoms especially via the process of photosynthesis and respiration.
Carnegie made his fortune in the steel industry, controlling the most extensive integrated iron and steel operations ever owned by an individual in the United States. One of his two great innovations was in the cheap and efficient mass production of steel by adopting and adapting the Bessemer process for steel making.
man ma, A park built in Manhattan New York which began in the 1850s was a result of pressure from the members of high society, who wanted an elegant setting for their daily carriage rides.
In order to build the new centralized stockyard, a consortium of nine railroad companies purchased a 320-acre area of swampy land in southwest Chicago for $100,000 in 1864. Using Chicago as a hub, this new stockyard would serve as a commercial link between America's East and West. Five hundred thousand gallons of fresh water were pumped daily from the Chicago River into the yards, and waste drained into a fork of the river that would be dubbed "Bubbly Creek" due to the contamination
Highly contagious skin disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus. Acquired by droplet inhalation into the respiratory system.
an infectious epidemic disease common in many urban areas during the nineteenth century concern about the disease and the filthy conditions that helped it spread led to public health measures.
Forced religious conversions of Native Americans; was the drastic difference against the spiritual animism of the native populations.
An Italian navigator who was funded by the Spanish Government to find a passage to the Far East. He is given credit for discovering the "New World," even though at his death he believed he had made it to India. He made four voyages to the "New World." The first sighting of land was on October 12, 1492, and three other journies until the time of his death in 1503.
The period of warfare between the Confederate States of America (1861-1865) and the United States over the issues of states' rights and slavery. The American Civil War was one of the earliest true industrial wars. Railroads, the telegraph, steamships, and mass-produced weapons were employed extensively. The mobilization of civilian factories, mines, shipyards, banks, transportation and food supplies all foreshadowed World War I. It remains the deadliest war in American history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 750,000 soldiers and an undetermined number of civilian casualties.
Close of the Frontier
1890- was formally declared in 1890 but had actually come to a close several years earlier due to overgrazing, grasshopper plagues, and droughts in 1886 and blizzards in 1887, As of 1890, the US population had spread from the East Coast to the West Coast and then filled into the Great A desert, so some felt new frontiers should be sought out for economic opportunities.
a solid, hard black substance that burns and gives off heat. Coal is composed mostly of carbon. It is formed from partly decayed vegetable matter under great pressure and heat in the earth, A resource that is burned to produce steam to run electric generators. Largest producer of electricity.
insects that leave bad odor and germs on the food they crawl on; they can cause intestinal diseasea
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
A political and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including plant and animal species as well as their habitat for the future. The early conservation movement included fisheries and wildlife management, water, soil conservation and sustainable forestry.
tall annual cereal grass bearing kernels on large ears: widely cultivated in America in many varieties; a large grain plant domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times
The plant that produces fibers from which many textiles are woven. Native to India, it spread throughout Asia and then to the New World. It has been a major cash crop in various places, including early Islamic Iran, Yi Korea, Egypt, and the US, the king of manufactured goods; in 1750 England imported less than 5 mil pounds of this, a century later it became 588 mil pounds; by mid 19th, nearly half a million people earned their living from this; accounted for over 40% of the value of all British exports
Invented by Eli Whitney in 1793. It removed seeds from cotton fibers. Now cotton could be processed quickly and cheaply. Results: more cotton is grown and more slaves are needed for more acres of cotton fields
Cattle handlers who drove large herds across the southern Great Plains. The era of the cowboy lasted from 1870 to the late 1880s., American settlers who moved to the west and became ranchers, adopting many of the Mexicans vaqueros.
a plant that grows as a weed; invasive plant from europeans; unintentional from columbian exchange
The clearing of forested land. This process often takes place in developing countries to establish more agricultural land for cultivation. Significant environmental problems including soil erosion can result from this.
mechanization of animal slaughter for meat packiong. replaced wasteful practices and sped up delivery
an example of domestication from wolves; occurred over thousands of years. Furthermore, selection for domesticity had the side effect of selecting genetically related physical characteristics, and behavior such as barking. Hypothetically, wolves separated into two populations-the village-oriented scavengers and the packs of hunters. The next steps have not been defined, but selective pressure must have been present to sustain the divergence of these populations.
The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century, During the Industrial Revolution, it was the consolidation of many small farms into one large farm, which created a labor force as many people lost their homes.
A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. The canal, considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West.
a barrier enclosing or bordering a field, yard, etc., usually made of posts and wire or wood, used to prevent entrance, to confine, or to mark a boundary
Found along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, this was the first early river civilization. The cities in this area were governed by city-states and used irrigation to produced their corps.
Many ecosystems, particulalarly prairie, savanna, chaparral and conifer forests have evolved with fire as a natural and necessary contributor to habitat vitality and renewal. Many plant species in naturally fire-affected environments require fire to germinate, to establish, or to reproduce, or all three. Fire suppression not only eliminates these species, but also the animals that depend upon them. Finally, fire suppression can lead to the build-up of inflammable debris and the creation of less frequent but much larger and destructive wildfires.
1900 modeled after european chain-pull toilets cleanliness and convenience people more aware of germs and disposed human waste as a source of infection and water contamination. bathroom became a place of privacy
painter, Painted the largely untamed Hudson River Valley
Frederick Law Olmsted
designed New York's central Park in 1858. He viewed city parks as much more than recreational centers and he sought to create oases of culture that would promote social stability and cohesion. Due to the congestion and disease associated with city life many people participated in outdoor recreation to improve health
where crops weren't able to grow well in the north, fur trade was a large part of there economy; not only would colonists hunt for furs, they would also trade with the Natives to get furs, an Indian trade that helped the French form a bond with the natives. This bond helped France compete with Britain; reason the French and Netherlands came to the Americas
the overflow of garbage and lack of waste management led to an increase in cholera breakouts; With the advent of industrial revolution, waste management became a critical issue. This was due to the increase in population and the massive migration of people to industrial towns and cities from rural areas during the 18th century. There was a consequent increase in industrial and domestic wastes posing threat to human health and the environment. The living conditions of rural areas in England during this time forced society to propose solutions and bring about change. The understanding of good hygiene was important in order to maintain a desired lifestyle.
Garden of Eden
is described in the Book of Genesis as being the place where the first man, Adam, and the first woman, Eve, lived after they were created by God. The past physical existence of this garden forms part of the creation belief of the Abrahamic religions.
Gardens at Versailles
Very symmetrical, lots of fountains, showed that King Louis was even in control of nature
George Perkins Marsh
Inventor, diplomat, politician, and scholar, his classic work, Man and Nature, or Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action, provided the first description of the extent to which natural systems had been impacted by human actions, Marsh argued that deforestation could lead to desertification. Referring to the clearing of once-lush lands surrounding the Mediterranean, he asserted "the operation of causes set in action by man has brought the face of the earth to desolation almost as complete as that of the moon."
Germ Theory of Disease
developed by Louis Pasteur-specific diseases were caused by specific living organisms-germs-and that they could be controlled in people and in beverages
One of the country's first scientific foresters, appointed by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1881 as the chief of the newly created Division of Forestry in the Department of Agriculture; worked to develop programs and public interest in conservation, but was fired in 1910 by President William Howard Taft after exposing a supposed scandal involving western conservation land in what came to be known as the Ballinger-Pinchot affair, He campaigned for conservation, planned, regulated use of the nation's forest lands for various public and commercial purposes.
the vast grassland between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains, The Great Plains is the area extending from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains. It was a treeless but grassy region difficult to farm in the nineteenth century. Plains Indians lived off the buffalo and other wildlife; white settlers turned to cattle and sheep ranching there. It was sometimes called the Great American Desert, provided only temporary respite for the native americans from conflict with the white settlers
A mixture of saltpeter, sulfur, and charcoal, in various proportions. The formula brought to China in the 400s or 500s was first used to make fumigators and keep away insect pests and evil spirits. In later centuries, it was used to make explosives and grenades and to propel cannon-balls, shot, and bullets. Initially used by the Song to propel clusters of flaming arrows
founded a meat-packing empire in the Midwest during the late 19th century, over which he presided until his death. He is credited with the development of the first practical ice-cooled railroad car which allowed his company to ship dressed meats to all parts of the country and even abroad, which ushered in the "era of cheap beef", He was the man who realized that refrigerated railway cars would make it possible to ship butchered meat from Western ranges to Eastern markets, eliminating the need to transport live cattle, hence he was the creator of the refrigerated car. He established packing houses in Omaha and Kansas City, by controlling the production, transportation, and distribution of his product, he mastered vertical integration.
Henry David Thoreau
American transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery. He wrote down his beliefs in Walden. He started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax to support him Mexican War., A transcendentalist and friend of Emerson. He lived alone on Walden Pond with only $8 a year from 1845-1847 and wrote about it in Walden. In his essay, "On Civil Disobedience," he inspired social and political reformers because he had refused to pay a poll tax in protest of slavery and the Mexican-American War, and had spent a night in jail. He was an extreme individualist and advised people to protest by not obeying laws (passive resistance).
1863-1947. American businessman, founder of Ford Motor Company, father of modern assembly lines, and inventor credited with 161 patents., Model T, Assembly line
Hetch Hetchy was a beautiful valley in Yosemite. It damming in the 1920's caused major controversy among environmentalists. Opposition was led by John Muir and the Sierra Club., a glacial valley in Yosemite National Park in California. It is currently completely flooded by O'Shaughnessy Dam, forming the Hetch Hetchy Reservoir. The Tuolumne River fills the reservoir. Upstream from the valley lies the Grand Canyon of the Tuolumne. The reservoir supplies the Hetch Hetchy Aqueduct. The damming of the valley in the 1920s, and the creation of a reservoir, were at the time, and since, a major environmental controversy in the Western United States., a deep, scenic glacial valley in the northeast corner of Yosemite, where San Francisco wanted to dam the valley to create a large reservoir. Pinchot v. Muir: Pinchot, more utilitarian, argued that the reservoir would be much more useful for humans than preserving the valley. Muir argued for the preservation of the valley, stating that it was a storehouse of scenic wonder and wanted to preserve the valley for its own sake (preservation).
Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25, Opened the Great Plains for settlement
A species of the creatures Hominid who have larger brains and to which humans belong, dependent of language and usage of tools.
Brought to North America in 1622 to pollinate plants from other countries and brought to make honey. Perennial Colony: all members of colony have the ability to survive from year to year. Nest constructed of wax; wax flakes produced by special glands of the abdomen, then are molded into comb
Animal introduced by Europeans that transformed the Indian way of life on the Great Plains; The introduction of horses into plains native tribes revolutionized entire cultures. Some tribes abandoned a relatively sedentary life style to become horse nomads in less than a generation. Hunting became more important for most tribes as ranges were expanded. More frequent contact with distant tribes increased the likelihood of competition and warfare. Eventually, in most tribes a person's wealth was measured in horses, and great honors came to those who could capture them from an enemy.
smothers fire, horse excreta used as fertilizer
In the United States the meridian 100° west of Greenwich forms the eastern border of the Texas panhandle with Oklahoma (which traces its origin to the Adams-Onís Treaty in 1819 which settled the border between New Spain and the United States between the Red River and Arkansas River). Dodge City, Kansas lies exactly at the intersection of the Arkansas River and the 100th meridian.A sign across U.S. Highway 30 in Cozad, Nebraska, marks the place where the 100th meridian intersects with the routes of the Oregon Trail, Pony Express, transcontinental railroad, and the Lincoln Highway.
a member of a nomadic group whose food supply depends on hunting animals and collecting plant foods.
Period of time when huge sheets of ice covered much of the earth's land, formed from ocean water, leaving ocean levels lower than they are now which exposed dry land that connected the continents.
made to provide efficient transportation between the Des Plaines River and Lake Michigan because the area between was full of muck that would flood during heavy rain, the two canals which, together, created a river system from the Great Lakes, through Chicago, to the Mississippi; allowed for water passage to New Orleans
the nineteenth century policy of the government of the US to remove Native American tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river, the forced removal of Native Americans in order to claim their land and to reduce the level of conflicts between them and settlers.
Indians and Fire
The cumulative impact of burning by Native Americans profoundly altered the landscape. When first encountered by Europeans, many ecosystems were the result of repeated fires every one to three years, resulting in the replacement of forests with grassland or savanna, or opening up the forest by removing undergrowth. More forest exists today in some parts of North America than when the Europeans first arrived. Generally, the American Indians burned parts of the ecosystems in which they lived to promote a diversity of habitats, especially increasing the "edge effect," which gave the Indians greater security and stability to their lives. Typical reasons for burning: hunting, crop management, insect collection, pest management, improve growth and yields, fireproofing areas, warfare and signaling, economic extortion, clearing areas for travel, felling trees, clearing riparian areas.
Form of agriculture that uses large-scale mechanization and fossil fuel combustion, enabling farmers to replace oxen and horses with faster and more powerful means of cultivation, harvesting, transporting, and processing crops. other aspects include irrigation, use of herbicides and pesticides.
Process of industrial development in which countries evolve economically, from producing basic, primary goods to using modern factories for mass-producing goods. At the highest levels of development, national economies are geared mainly toward the delivery of services and exchange of information., The change from a mainly rural, agricultural society to one in which factories, technology, and cities predominate. Associated with many environmental problems including pollution, global warming, etc.
1918-1919 pandemic that spread across the world; killed between 2 and 20% of those infected; mostly killed young adults; Indeed, symptoms in 1918 were so unusual that initially influenza was misdiagnosed as dengue, cholera, or typhoid. One observer wrote, "One of the most striking of the complications was hemorrhage from mucous membranes, especially from the nose, stomach, and intestine. Bleeding from the ears and petechial hemorrhages in the skin also occurred." The majority of deaths were from bacterial pneumonia, a secondary infection caused by influenza, but the virus also killed people directly, causing massive hemorrhages and edema in the lung.
Irish Potato Famine
A famine in 1845 when the main crop of Ireland, potatoes, was destroyed by disease. Irish farmers grew other food items, such as wheat and oats, but Great Britain required them to export those items to them, leaving nothing for the Irish to live on. As a result, over 1 million Irish died of starvation or disease, while millions of others migrated to the United States.
after agriculture developed, stronger tools were needed, so tools were made of metal (copper, bronze - Bronze age); Iron was discovered about 1500 BCE, changed tools, metal working, special jobs, agriculture, etc
A Scottish engineer who created the steam engine that worked faster and more efficiently than earlier engines, this man continued improving the engine, inventing a new type of governor to control steam pressure and attaching a flywheel.
John Wesley Powell
explorer and geologist who warned that traditional agriculture could not succeed west of 100th meridian, Geologist, warned people that so little rain fell in the midwest, farming was only possible through mass irrigation
a group of Athabaskan people living in northern Alaska. Their traditional home is along the Koyukuk and Yukon rivers where they subsisted by hunting and trapping for thousands of years. As the Koyukon reckon it, all things human and natural go back to a time so remote that no one can explain or understand how long ago it really was. However ancient this time may be, its events are recounted accurately and in great detail through a prodigious number of stories.
The stories constitute an oral history of the Koyukon people and their environment, beginning in an age before the present order of existence was established. During this age "the animals were human"—that is, they had human form, they lived in a human society, and they spoke human (Koyukon) language. At some point in the Distant Time certain humans died and were transformed into animal or plant beings, the species that inhabit Koyukon country today. These dreamlike metamorphoses left a residue of human qualities and personality traits in the north-woods creatures.
Taken together, the Distant Time stories describe a primordial world and its transfiguration into modern form. The scope of Distant Time stories ranges from the minute to the cosmological. The explain the beginnings of entities that inhabit the sky—the sun, moon, and aurora. They account for certain weather phenomena, such as thunderstorms, which are the transformed embodiment of a formerly human spirit.
At the end of Distant Time there was a great catastrophe. The entire earth was covered by a flood, and under the Raven's supervision a pair of each species went aboard a raft. These plants and animals survived, but when the flood ended they could no longer behave like people. All the Distant Time humans had been killed, and so Raven recreated people in their present form. The Koyukon believe that nature is God, which is why they must respect it.
Annual migration, in spring gathered budding plans and small game. Harvested dried pipening cactus fruites for winter storage. Moved to higher elevations in August, harvested acorns and pinon nuts before returning to winter villages., They also built dams with rocks to guide water to where they wanted plants to grow.
an economic system in which the means of production and distribution are privately owned and operated for profit with minimal or no government interference
A Norwegian explorer of about the year 1000. He is said to have discovered a place n North America called Vinland. Several locations are possible for Vinland, including the Canadian province of Newfoundland and New England. He is sometimes called the European discoverer of America, instead of Columbus.
farm animals; domestic animals raised for their working ability or for their value as a source of food and other products
the work of cutting down trees for timber, the process of removing trees from a forest either to clear land for other uses or to use the trees for fuel wood or other commercial purposes
The U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon, in 1803. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America. The U.S. gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size.
an infective disease caused by sporozoan parasites that are transmitted through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito
This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory., The belief that America had the God-given right and duty to expand across the continent
extinct elephant-like mammal that flourished worldwide from Miocene through Pleistocene times
humans played a major role in their extinction, probably not climate change like people previously thought because animals had survived previous climate changes, "large animals" he term is especially associated with the Pleistocene megafauna — the giant and very large land animals considered archetypical of the last ice age such as mammoths.
unhealthy vapors rising from the ground or other sources, swamp gas; heavy vaporous atmosphere often emanating from decaying matter; pervasive corrupting influence; noxious atmosphere or influence; that diseases such as cholera, chlamydia or the Black Death were caused by a miasma (Μίασμα, ancient Greek: "pollution"), a noxious form of "bad air". The theory held that the origin of these epidemic diseases was a miasma, emanating from rotting organic matter.
Corporations that gain complete control of the production of a single good or service.
A blood-sucking insect that can transmit some diseases.
public lands set aside to grow trees, produce timber, protect watersheds, and ensure future timber supplies, -Manage natural resources
-managed by US Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management
-Conflicts between private
One form of reserve that is intended to protect natural and scenic areas of national or international significance for scientific, educational and recreational use
National Reclamation Act
backed by Roosevelt in 1902, it provided federal funds for the construction of damns, reservoirs, and canals in the West—projects that would open new lands for cultivation and provide cheap electric power later on.
Native American Origin Stories
a symbolic narrative of how the world began and how people first came to inhabit it. While in popular usage the term "myth" is often thought to refer to false or fanciful stories, creation myths are by definition stories which cultures take to be true to varying degrees. Creation myths develop in oral traditions and therefore typically have multiple versions; and they are the most common form of myth, found throughout human culture. In the society in which it is told, a creation myth is usually regarded as conveying profound truths, metaphorically, symbolically and sometimes even in a historical or literal sense. They are commonly, although not always, considered cosmological myths—that is they describe the ordering of the cosmos from a state of chaos or amorphousness.
Characteristic of many Native American myths, earth-diver creation stories begin as beings and potential forms linger asleep or suspended in the primordial realm. The earth-diver is among the first of them to awaken and lay the necessary groundwork by building suitable lands where the coming creation will be able to live. In many cases, these stories will describe a series of failed attempts to make land before the solution is found.
This social revolution was also known as the New Stone Age where people changed from hunting and gathering food to domesticating animals and cultivating land as farmers.
condition of lack of nerve strength; nervous exhaustion and weakness, A psychological disorder or nervous debility characterized by chronic fatigue and weakness, loss of memory, and generalized aches and pains, formerly thought to result from exhaustion of the nervous system. No longer in scientific use.
Human feces used as fertilizer
have especially thick wide spreading branches, fruit is an acorn, have enormous root system making then able to survive strong winds and water; found in CA
relationship to nature; koyukon pagan views of nature--> all europeans had animistic views on nature (spirits in nature)
the first Americans who crossed from Asia into North America sometime between 38,000 and 10,000 BC, The Paleo Indians were mainly nomadic hunters that followed the herds of bison, mammoth, or mastadon., First American's are called these. Nomadic hunter of game and gatherers of wild plants, they spread throughout north and soUTH america, porbably as bands of extended families. By about 11,500 years ago they made stone projectiles, spears for hunting etc. Due to Ice Age ending and increase in human pop. mammals disapeared. So, Indians had to cultivate own food. In north America, the cultivation of crops led to development of Mesoamerica (modern Mexico and Guatemala and Mississippian culture ( in US). Food supply limits lead to demise.
The name of the single landmass that broke apart 200 million years ago and gave rise to today's continents.
Once the most popular bird in North America that took 50 years to drive to extinction from numbers in the billions., is an extinct North American bird. Hunting and habitat destruction led to its demise in the early 20th century. At the time, they had the largest groups or flocks of any animal when they were around. Originally found in Eastern and Midwestern North America.
man made landscape; in paintings a transition from pastoral to wilderness (rural england) vs dark scary wilderness; open and rejuvinating
bird poop imported from islands. shows green revolution and increase in production and progressive agriculture
domestic animals prevalent in woodland settlements; foraged for food and kept for slaughter
Genetic modification of a plant such that its reproductive success depends on human intervention., deliberately planted and tended by humans that is genetically distinct from its wild ancestors as a result of selective breeding.
-parallel major event going on during the movements
-33 genera of large mammals in North America that went extinct in the last thousand years of Pleistocene
-represented 70% of large animals living in North America, series of warming and cooling cycles; major changes in animals in the time bracketing ice age (10 to 12 thousand years ago); colder and drier time; extensive glaciers over most of northern hemisphere; extinctions geographically concentrated; animals larger than pigs hit hardest
A settlement of Separatists outside the London Company's territory. These Separatists, the Pilgrims, received help from the Indians and made friends with some of them.
The illigal hunting, capturing or collecting of wildlife.
Farm-based movement of the late 1800s that arose mainly in the area from Texas to the Dakotas and grew into a joint effort between farmer and labor groups against big business and machine-based politics. The movement became a third party in the election of 1892.
New World crop that increased the food supply; it may have accounted for the population explosion
-about inherent value of all life
-John Muir and Henry David Thoreau
-Wilderness protection is an inherent right of nature
-Policies slow extraction and forward anti-materialism
Some places in nature are so bestowed with the divine - so sublime - that they must be preserved from the despoilations of humans- John Muir
idea that Europeans arrived in the Americas and the land was pristine and untouched
Puritan New England
The Puritans longed for religious freedom, but also originally wanted to set up a "new England", which would be modeled on their own theological teachings., Unique geographic location allowed NE to avoid plagues and disease seen in the South; focused more on religion
similar to the way that native american's used fire. pyroculture is the idea of a society using fire in its sustainability.
Networks of iron (later steel) rails on which steam (later electric or diesel) locomotives pulled long trains at high speeds. First railroads were built in England in the 1830s. Success caused a railroad building boom lasting into the 20th Century (704)
a form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area
animals that transported the fleas infecting people with the plague
t is the most widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in Asia and the West Indies. It is the grain with the second-highest worldwide production, after maize (corn), according to data for 2010.Rice cultivation is well-suited to countries and regions with low labor costs and high rainfall, as it is labor-intensive to cultivate and requires ample water. Rice can be grown practically anywhere, even on a steep hill or mountain. Although its parent species are native to Asia and certain parts of Africa, centuries of trade and exportation have made it commonplace in many cultures worldwide.
American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815), Inventor of the steamboat, which as a boat that had a powerful steam engine. These enabled boats to travel upstream on rivers, thus increasing trade while at the same time improving inter and state transportation.
A marine and freshwater food fish, Salmo salar, of the family Salmonidae, having pink flesh, inhabiting waters off the North Atlantic coasts of Europe and North America near the mouths of large rivers, which it enters to spawn.
the era of scientific thought in europe during which careful observation of the natural world was made, and accepted beliefs were questioned
solid and liquid waste from homes and other buildings that is carried away by sewers or drains
a social-economic system under which certain persons — known as slaves — are deprived of personal freedom and compelled to perform labour or services
Disease spread by Europeans in the Americas. Led to the deaths of millions of Native Americans in North and South America
Houses built with blocks of sod. Typically small and commonly found in the sides of hills in the midwest
a condition in which soil has lost nutrients and becomes nearly useless for farming.
Possibly the largest help for the Industrial Revolution, it allowed factories to stop relying on water power which made all factories near the rivers. It also allowed steam engine trains that would be materials between areas., the process of burning coal to produce steam which is then used to operate a pump, james watt helped make the steam engine more efficient and it became a practical commercial success in England, helped to transport goods faster and cheaper, created broader network of trade
A boat that moves by the power of a steam engine, made it easier and quicker to travel goods
With the European colonization of the Americas, the Caribbean became the world's largest source of sugar.
Superior National Forest
part of the United States National Forest system; The majority of the forest is multiple-use, including both logging and recreational activities such as camping, boating, and fishing. Slightly over a quarter of the forest however is set aside as a wilderness reserve known as the Boundary Waters Canoe Area (BWCA), where canoers can travel along interconnected lakes and rivers and over historic portages once used by the Native Americans and later by European explorers and traders.
the ancestor of maze. A good example of early domestication of plants.
Texas Longhorn Cattle
-Originated in Spain, developed in Texas
-Many colors (includes speckled or spotted)
-Long, distinctive horns
-Slow growing; light birth weight; light muscled
-known for excellent hardiness, longevity and ability to forage
cows, by 1865, 5 million. 1000s of cattle in groups, buffalo grass survived winter: food
A factory in which fibers such as cotton and wool are woven into textiles, or cloth
The Chicago River
The Chicago river originally flowed into the Lake Michigan. Egineers dug a canal to cnnect the Chicago River to the Illinois River which flows into the Mississippi. The canal and locks forced the Chicago River to flow backwards so it would link Lk Michigan to the Mississippi.
The English Garden
s a style of Landscape garden which emerged in England in the early 18th century, and spread across Europe; The English garden presented an idealized view of nature
This 1906 work by Upton Sinclair pointed out the abuses of the meat packing industry. The book led to the passage of the 1906 Meat Inspection Act.
subjects from nature that aroused strong emotions, such as fear, dread, and awe, and raise questions about whether and how much we control our lives., any cathartic experience from the catastrophic to the intellectual that causes the viewer to marvel in awe, wonder, and passion
26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War, (1858-1919) Twenty-sixth president of the United States; he focused his efforts on trust busting, environmental conservation, and strong foreign policy.
Founder of the Hudson River school, famous for his landscape paintings, Artist who emphasized the heroic beauty of American landscapes, especially in uplifting dramatic scenes along the Hudson River and western frontier images
Founded the Hudson River School
He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States., A prominent statesman, Thomas Jefferson became George Washington's first secretary of state. Along with James Madison, Jefferson took up the cause of strict constructionists and the Republican Party, advocating limited federal government. As the nation's third president from 1801 to 1809, Jefferson organized the national government by Thomas Jefferson Republican ideals, doubled the size of the nation, and struggled to maintain American neutrality
the wood of trees cut and prepared for use as building material; In the second half of the 19th century, the timber industry cut down large stretches of native forest around the Great Lakes, leaving the land denuded and mills abandoned.
Cash crop that made a profit and saved Jamestown; Tobacco had already long been used in the Americas when European settlers arrived and introduced the practice to Europe, where it became popular. Many Native American tribes have traditionally grown and used tobacco with some cultivation sites in Mexico dating back to 1400-1000 B.C. Eastern North American tribes carried large amounts of tobacco in pouches as a readily accepted trade item, and often smoked it in peace pipes, either in defined sacred ceremonies, or to seal a bargain, and they smoked it at such occasions in all stages of life, even in childhood. Following the arrival of the Europeans, tobacco became increasingly popular as a trade item. It fostered the economy for the southern United States until it was replaced by cotton. Following the American civil war, a change in demand and a change in labor force allowed inventor James Bonsack to create a machine that automated cigarette production.
Any type of tourism that relies primarily on attractions involving the natural environment in a direct way., tourism motivated by nature i.e. Yellowstone Park
the relatively small-scale production of fruits, vegetables and flowers as cash crops, frequently sold directly to consumers and restaurants. It is distinguishable from other types of farming by the diversity of crops grown on a small area of land, typically, from under one acre to a few acres, or sometimes in greenhouses. Such a farm on a larger scale is sometimes called a truck farm.
guys that scoop waste off the street
infection transmitted by inhalation or ingestion of tubercle bacilli and manifested in fever and small lesions (usually in the lungs but in various other parts of the body in acute stages)
The historian Frederick Jackson Turner argued that the frontier was the key factor in the development of American democracy and institutions; he maintained that the frontier served as a "safety valve" during periods of economic crisis., argued that the American character was shaped by the existance of the frontier and the way Americans interacted and developed the frontier, he felt that the frontier encouraged individualism and democracy
the limited water supply and fact that most houses were made of wood contributed to spread of fires. Major fires occurred in almost every major American city in the 1870s and 1880s.
the social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban
Thoreau, lived in nature for a while, wrote about how nature is the place to find one's self and escape the danger's of society. Fix corruption with nature. His mom did the cooking/cleaning.
the uses of these for grinding crops or engaging in light industry also served to aid the intro of the heavy plow and the three field system
undesirable plants that often crowd out crop plants or native plant species; invasive species
an area where there are few people living; an area still in its natural state; considered "wild" or "untouched by man"; a myth because there is no such thing as untouched wilderness
Their sails captured the wind's power to turn the mills the ground grain into flour; Originally, windmills were developed for milling grain for food production. In the course of history, the windmill machinery was adapted to many other industrial uses. An important non-milling use is to pump water, either for land drainage or to extract groundwater.
Any of several large carnivorous mammals of the genus Canis, of the dog family Canidae; Wolves are mainly hunted for sport, for their skins, to protect livestock, and, in some rare cases, to protect humans. Wolves have been actively hunted since 12,000 to 13,000 years ago, when they first began to pose threats to livestock vital for the survival of Neolithic human communities.In the majority of Native American hunter-gatherer societies, wolves were usually killed for body parts used in rituals, or to stop them raiding food caches,though some tribes would raid wolf dens for pups when wolf populations became too large for the Natives to live with. This also served as a method of acquiring food, as wolf cubs were considered a delicacy.
In the year 1853, Louisiana lost 9,000 people due to the yellow fever epidemic. Yellow fever was transmitted by mosqitoes. Symptoms of yellow fever include black vomit, fever, chills, headaches, backaches, shock, bleeding, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes), and failure of the heart, liver, and kidneys.
Yellowstone National Park
the first national park in the United States, created in 1872. Located in the border area between Wyoming and Montana and Idaho; spectacular wilderness; famous for Old Faithful geyser and for buffalo and bears. Once more parks were created, the National Park Service was created by Wilson in 1916
Yosemite National Park
1880s in California; created by Congress; Controversy over the Hetch Hetchy Valley there-San Francisco residents worried about needing more water, want it to be a reservoir. Naturalists say no. after many years of delays construction finally began after WWI.
Recommended textbook explanations
Impact California Social Studies World History, Culture, & Geography The Modern World
Jackson J. Spielvogel
World History: The Modern Era
World History: The Human Journey
Akira Iriye, Laurel Carrington, Mattie P. Collins, Peter Stearns, Rudy J. Martinez
World History (Texas)
Jackson J. Spielvogel
Sets found in the same folder
American Environmental History
Chapter 2: Environmental History
history 157 exam 2
Sets with similar terms
APUSH Chapter 1
Global Environmental History
APUSH Chapter 1
Other sets by this creator
comm exam 3
Other Quizlet sets
Island of the Blue Dolphins Vocabulary & Story Ski…
Mrs. Chase's Native American test prep lesson 2-5
Environmental Studies Midterm 2