33 terms

Chemistry Vocab

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Molal Freezing-Point Depression Constant
The change in freezing-point for a 1-molal solution of a nonmolative molecular solute
Molality
The concentration of solute in a solution expressed as the number of moles of solute dissolved in 1 KG of solvent.
boiling-point elevation
the difference in temperature between the boiling point of a solution and the boiling point of the pure solvent
freezing-point depression
the difference in temperature between the freezing point of a solution and the freezing point of the pure solvent
Molarity
The concentration of a solute in a solution expressed as the number of moles of solute dissolved in 1 Liter of solution
supersaturated solution
a solution that contains more solute that it can theoretically hold at a given temperature; excess solute precipitates if a seed crystal is added.
immiscible
describes liquids that are insoluble in one another; oil and water are immiscible
miscible
describes liquids that dissolve in one another in all proportions
unsaturated solution
a solution that contains less solute than a saturated solution at a give temperature and pressure
saturated solutions
a solution containing the maximum amount of solute for a given amount of solvent at a constant temperature and pressure; an equilibrium exist between undissolved solute and ions in solution
Brownian Motion
The chaotic movement of colloidal particles, cause by collision with particles of the solven in which they are despersed
Tyndall Effect
scattering of light by particles in a colloid or suspension, which causes a beam of light to become visible
suspension
a mixture from which some of the particles settle out slowly upon standing
surfactant
any substance that interferes with the hydrogen bonding between water molecules and thereby surface tension; soaps and detergents are examples.
hydrate
a compound that has a specific number of water molecules bound to each formula unit
weak electrolyte
a solution that conducts electricity poorly because only a fraction of the solute exists as ions
strong electrolyte
a solution in which a large portion of the solute exists as ions
nonelectrolyte
a compound that does not conduct an electric current in an aqueous solution or molten state
electrolyte
a compound that conducts and electric current when it is in an aqueous solution or in the molten state; all ionic compounds are electrolyte, but most covalent compounds aren't
solute
dissolved particle
solvent
dissolving medium
aqueous solution
water that contains dissolved substances
molal boiling-point elevation constant
the change in boiling-point for a 1-molal solution of a nonvolatile molecular solute
mole fraction
the ration of moles of solute in solution to the total number of moles of both solvent and solute
colligative properties
a property of a solution that depends only upon the number of solute particles, and not upon their identities; boiling-point elevation, freezing-point depression, and vapor-pressure lowering are examples
concentrated solutions
a solution containing a large amount of solute
dilute solution
a solution that contains a small amount of solute
concentration
a measurement of the amount of solute that is dissolved in a given quantity of solvent' usually expressed as mol/L
solubility
the amount of a substance that dissolves in a give quantity of solvent a specified conditions of temperature and pressure to produce a saturated solution
emulsion
the colloidal dispersion of one liquid in another
colloid
a mixture whose particles are intermediate in size between those of a suspension and a solute solution
surface tension
an inward force that tends to minimize the surface area of a liquid; it causes the surface to behave as if it were a thin skin.
salvation
a process that occurs when an ionic solute dissolves; in solution solvent molecules surround the positive and negative ions