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AP Biology : Chapter 23
Terms in this set (29)
_________ is a change in the allele frequencies of a population over generations.
______ are the only source of new genes and new alleles.
________ are changes in one base in a gene.
__________ delete, disrupt, duplicate, or rearrange many loci at once.
_________ within a population are due to the sexual recombination of alleles that already exist in a population.
most of the genetic variation
___________ is the study of how populations change genetically over time.
_____ is a group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area and interbreed, producing fertile offspring.
_______ is all the alleles at all loci in all the members of a population.
If all members of a population are homozygous for the same allele, the allele is said to be ______.
Five conditions for Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
no mutations, random mating, no natural selection, the population must be extremely large, and no gene flow
The greater the number of fixed alleles, the _____ the species' diversity.
The ________________ is used to describe a population that is not evolving.
The _________ states that the frequencies of alleles and genes in a population's gene pool will remain constant over the course of generations unless they are acted upon by forces other than Mendelian segregation and the recombination of alleles.
Equation for Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
p^2 + 2pq + q^2
The three major factors that alter allele frequencies and bring about most evolutionary change are __________________.
natural selection, genetic drift, and gene flow
__________ results in alleles being passed to the next generation in proportions different from their relative frequencies in the present generation.
_________ is the unpredictable fluctuation in allele frequencies from one generation to the next.
_______ is a few individuals become isolated from a larger population and establish a new population whose gene pool is not reflective of the source population.
__________ is a sudden change in the environment drastically reduces the size of a population.
________ occurs when a population gains or loses alleles by genetic additions to and/or subtractions from the population.
______ tends to reduce the genetic difference between populations, thus making populations more similar.
______________ refers to the contribution an organism makes to the gene pool of the next generation relative to the contributions of other members.
____________ shifts the population by favoring variants that are at one extreme of the distribution.
__________ favors variants at both ends of the distribution.
_________ removes extreme variants from the population and preserves intermediate types.
__________ is a form of natural selection in which individuals with certain inherited characteristics are more likely than other individuals to obtains mates.
___________ is a difference between the two sexes in secondary sexual characteristics such as differences in size, color, ornamentation, and behavior.
How is genetic variation preserved in a population?
diploidy and heterozygous advantage
Why is it that natural selection cannot produce perfect organisms?
selection can only edit existing variations, evolution is limited by historical constraints, adaptations are often compromises, and chance, natural selection, and the environment interact
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