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Genetic disorder

coding region for protein are not right

Which people usually have sickle cell?

those living around the equator or descendants from there. Sickle cell prevents malaria.

what are some things that sickle cells can cause?

alter Hb structure, not carry O2 efficiently, lose flexibility, get caught in capillaries, clump together

what is protein structure due to



contains a nucleus


lacks a nucleus


group of 3 nucleotides that code for amino acids


make protein


chain of amino acids that can fold to become a protein

amino acid structure

process of transcription

mRNA enters nucleus, RNA polymerase unwinds DNA, complimentary mRNA formed from DNA template strand, mRNA built by RNA polymerase 5' to 3', mRNA leaves the nucleus

template strand

strand that is read to make mRNA

coding strand

other strand

RNA polymerase is read

5' to 3'


copying of DNA to mRNA; takes place in the nucleus

RNA polymerase

makes mRNA and zips/unzips DNA


ribosome in translation


brings amino acids with the anti-codon


reading of code in mRNA to make protein; takes place in the cytoplasm

how do you get the proteins for each cell

different parts of DNA are copied to make different proteins

what keeps the DNA from getting out of the nucleus

nuclear membrane/envelope

genes are read from

3'to 5'

mRNA is built from

5' to 3'


polymers of amino acids or polypeptides

proton donor


proton accepter


what bond makes a polypeptide

covalent bond through dehydration

proteins are made up of

one or more polypeptides


carries DNA info to ribosome in cytosol

how many codons are in the "alphabet" of proteins

64, 61 are sense codons and 3 are nonsense

what does a polypeptide chain need to do in order to be a protein


when does the polypeptide chain start to fold

during the formation of the protein

are red blood cells eukaryotes



"start" for transcription where RNA polymerase lands on the DNA


causes RNA polymerase to fall off DNA ending transcription


ribosomal recognition sequence on mRNA; starts translation


sequence that follows the protein coding region; stops translation

RNA coding region

part of the DNA that is going to be transcribed into mRNA

protein coding region

part on the mRNA that will translate into a protein

5' cap

modified 5' base added to 5' end; ribosomal recognition sequence

5' poly A-tail

long string of A's on the 3' end of mRNA


regions of nucleotides that does not code for amino acids


regions of DNA that code for amino acids


introns are removed from DNA before mRNA leaves nucleus

what is the purpose of the poly A tail

to protect the mRNA from enzymes in the cytoplasm that will disintegrate it.

Glu is


Val is


what do eukaryotic genes have that prokaryotic genes don't

5' cap, poly A-tail, introns

the code for amino acids is . . .

the mRNA

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