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Protein Synthesis, Sickle Cell

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Genetic disorder
coding region for protein are not right
Which people usually have sickle cell?
those living around the equator or descendants from there. Sickle cell prevents malaria.
what are some things that sickle cells can cause?
alter Hb structure, not carry O2 efficiently, lose flexibility, get caught in capillaries, clump together
what is protein structure due to
folding
eukaryotic
contains a nucleus
prokaryotic
lacks a nucleus
codon
group of 3 nucleotides that code for amino acids
ribosomes
make protein
polypeptide
chain of amino acids that can fold to become a protein
amino acid structure
process of transcription
mRNA enters nucleus, RNA polymerase unwinds DNA, complimentary mRNA formed from DNA template strand, mRNA built by RNA polymerase 5' to 3', mRNA leaves the nucleus
template strand
strand that is read to make mRNA
coding strand
other strand
RNA polymerase is read
5' to 3'
transcription
copying of DNA to mRNA; takes place in the nucleus
RNA polymerase
makes mRNA and zips/unzips DNA
rRNA
ribosome in translation
tRNA
brings amino acids with the anti-codon
translation
reading of code in mRNA to make protein; takes place in the cytoplasm
how do you get the proteins for each cell
different parts of DNA are copied to make different proteins
what keeps the DNA from getting out of the nucleus
nuclear membrane/envelope
genes are read from
3'to 5'
mRNA is built from
5' to 3'
proteins
polymers of amino acids or polypeptides
proton donor
acid
proton accepter
base
what bond makes a polypeptide
covalent bond through dehydration
proteins are made up of
one or more polypeptides
mRNA
carries DNA info to ribosome in cytosol
how many codons are in the "alphabet" of proteins
64, 61 are sense codons and 3 are nonsense
what does a polypeptide chain need to do in order to be a protein
fold
when does the polypeptide chain start to fold
during the formation of the protein
are red blood cells eukaryotes
no
promoter
"start" for transcription where RNA polymerase lands on the DNA
terminator
causes RNA polymerase to fall off DNA ending transcription
leader
ribosomal recognition sequence on mRNA; starts translation
trailer
sequence that follows the protein coding region; stops translation
RNA coding region
part of the DNA that is going to be transcribed into mRNA
protein coding region
part on the mRNA that will translate into a protein
5' cap
modified 5' base added to 5' end; ribosomal recognition sequence
5' poly A-tail
long string of A's on the 3' end of mRNA
intron
regions of nucleotides that does not code for amino acids
exon
regions of DNA that code for amino acids
splicing
introns are removed from DNA before mRNA leaves nucleus
what is the purpose of the poly A tail
to protect the mRNA from enzymes in the cytoplasm that will disintegrate it.
Glu is
charged
Val is
non-polar
what do eukaryotic genes have that prokaryotic genes don't
5' cap, poly A-tail, introns
the code for amino acids is . . .
the mRNA

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