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Traits shared by two or more spaces through influence from a common ancestor. Such traits need not serve the same function.


traits shared by two or more species that are similar in function but unrelated evolutionarily.


The scientific study that examines evolutionary explanations for social behaviors within species.

evolutionary psychology

Another name for sociobiology.

behavioral ecology

Another name for sociobiology.

Inclusive fitness

The idea that fitness is measured by the success of one's genes, whether possessed by the individual or by that individual's ancestors.


Benefiting others without regard for one's own needs or safety.

reproductive strategies

Behaviors that evolve to maximize and individual's reproductive success.


The study of the natural behavior of animals under natural conditions.


The open grasslands of the tropics.

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