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Herlihy Ch 16 & 17
Terms in this set (53)
Function, Location, and Size of the Heart
A.The heart (size of a fist) is located in the mediastinum, toward the left side of the sternum.
B.Located between the second rib and fifth intercostal space
C.The heart pumps blood throughout the body, delivering oxygen and nutrients and picking up waste.
The Heart's Layers and Covering
A.The heart has three layers: endocardium, myocardium, and epicardium.
B.The heart is supported by a slinglike pericardium.
C.Two layers of the pericardium form the pericardial space (contains serous fluid).
A Double Pump and Two Circulations
A.The right heart pumps blood to the lungs for oxygenation (called the pulmonary circulation).
B.The left heart pumps blood throughout the rest of the body (called the systemic circulation).
The Heart's Chambers and Great Vessels
A.The heart has four chambers: two atria and two ventricles.
B.The atria receive the blood and the ventricles pump the blood to the pulmonary and systemic circulations.
A.The purpose of heart valves is to keep blood flowing in a forward direction.
B.Two atrioventricular (AV) valves are the tricuspid valve (right heart) and the bicuspid (mitral) valve (left heart).
C.The two semilunar valves are the pulmonic valve (right heart) and the aortic valve (left heart).
A.The heart sounds ("lubb-dupp") are made by the vibrations caused by closure of the valves.
B.The "lubb" (S1) is caused by the closure of the AV valves at the beginning of ventricular contraction. The "dupp" (S2) is caused by the closure of the semilunar valves at the beginning of ventricular relaxation.
Pathway: Blood Flow through the Heart
A.The right heart receives blood from the venae cavae and pumps it to the lungs for oxygenation. The left heart receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it to the systemic circulation.
B.Blood flow through the heart is summarized in the flow chart (see Figure 16-7).
C.Shunts alter the path of blood flow through the heart.
Blood Supply to the Myocardium
A.The left and right coronary arteries supply the myocardium with oxygen and nutrients.
B.The coronary veins drain the unoxygenated blood and empty it into the coronary sinus, which empties into the right atrium.
Cardiac Conduction System
A.The SA node generates an electrical signal (cardiac impulse) that moves throughout the heart in a coordinated way. The electrical signal causes the myocardium to contract.
B.The pathway followed by the cardiac impulse is summarized in Figure 16-10.
C.Cardiac muscle displays automaticity and rhythmicity.
D.The SA node is the pacemaker of the heart. Pacemaker cells throughout the heart fire at different rates: normal, slow, and slower.
E.The electrical activity of cardiac muscle is recorded as an electrocardiogram.
Slinglike structure that supports the heart
Delivers oxygenated blood to the myocardium
Layer of the heart that contains actin and myosin; arranged in sarcomeres
Chamber that receives unoxygenated blood from the venae cavae
Chamber that receives oxygenated blood from the four pulmonary veins
Chamber that pumps blood into the aorta
Chamber that has the thickest myocardium
Chamber that pumps blood into the pulmonary artery
The left ventricle receives oxygenated blood from this chamber.
Refers to the area of the chest that overlies the heart
The semilunar valve through which blood exits the right ventricle
The exit valve for the right ventricle
The atrioventricular valve that "sees" unoxygenated blood
The valve that is also called the mitral valve
The semilunar valve through which blood exits the left ventricle
The AV valve that "sees" oxygenated blood
The AV valve located between the left atrium and left ventricle
If "leaky," this valve allows blood to flow backward from the pulmonary artery.
This valve is located in the right heart and does not have chordae tendineae.
This valve is located in the left heart and has chordae tendineae.
1.The cardiac cycle is a sequence of events that occurs during one heartbeat.
2.The events of the cardiac cycle include atrial and ventricular systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation).
Heart: Autonomic Control
1.The autonomic nervous system (ANS) allows the heart to respond to changing body needs.
2.Stimulation of the sympathetic nerves increases heart rate (SA node), conduction velocity (AV node), and contractile force (myocardium).
3.Stimulation of the parasympathetic nerves (vagus) decreases heart rate and conduction velocity.
Cardiac Output (CO)
1.CO is the amount of blood pumped by the ventricle in 1 minute.
2.CO is determined by heart rate (HR) and stroke volume (SV).
3.Many factors can change HR and/or SV.
How Stroke Volume Can Be Changed
1.SV can be changed by Starling's law of the heart (stretch).
2.SV can be changed by an inotropic effect (nonstretch).
A.Heart Talk: Clinical Terms
1.Includes the definition and description of commonly used clinical terms such as preload, afterload, ejection fraction, inotropic effect, chronotropic effect, and dromotropic effect
B.Heart Talk: Receptor Terminology
1.Includes the definitions of beta1-adrenergic receptor activation, beta1-adrenergic receptor blockade, muscarinic receptor activation, and muscarinic receptor blockade
The Failing Heart: When the Heart Can't Pump
A.Left Heart Failure
1.The left heart can fail, producing symptoms caused by a backup of blood into the pulmonic circulation (pulmonary edema); referred to as backward failure.
2.The failing left heart is unable to pump enough blood to the systemic circulation, producing symptoms related to poor tissue oxygenation; referred to as forward failure.
B.Right Heart Failure
C.Blood backs up behind the failed right ventricle, causing jugular vein distention, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, digestive problems, and ankle edema.
Amount of blood in the ventricle at the end of its resting phase
Percentage of the end-diastolic volume (EDV) pumped by the ventricle
Arteriolar constriction and hypertension cause this to increase.
Forms the basis of Starling's law of the heart
The effect of a drug that changes heart rate
Digoxin slows the speed of the cardiac impulse through the conduction system, thereby causing a heart block.
Same as end-diastolic volume (EDV)
May decline from 67% to 30% in the failing heart
Stroke volume times heart rate
Phase of the cardiac cycle that refers to myocardial contraction
Phase of the cardiac cycle during which the ventricles fill with blood
Phase of the cardiac cycle that refers to myocardial relaxation
Starling's law of the heart
Change in myocardial contraction that is caused by stretching of the heart muscle
Change in myocardial contraction that is not caused by stretching of the heart muscle
Amount of blood pumped by the ventricle in one beat
Amount of blood pumped by the ventricle in 1 minute
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