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Chemistry semester review
Terms in this set (64)
Typically, atoms gain or lose electrons to achieve a
stable electron configuration
What classification of element makes up the majority of the periodic table?
What group contains elements with stable electron configurations?
noble gas (group 18)
The elements on the periodic table are listed in order according to their
Isotopes of the same element always have different numbers of
metals tend to what electrons and nonmetals tend to what electrons?
metals lose , nonmetals gain
A gas has what definite? Volume has what definite shape?
gas has no definite, volume has no definite
In Niels Bohr's model of the atom, electrons move like
planets orbiting the sun
The substances that undergo change in a chemical reaction are called
In an atom, what two subatomic particles are always equal in number?
protons and electrons
The unit for atomic mass is
amu (atomic mass number)
How many atoms of Oxygen are contained in the substance Ca3(PO4)2?
In a chemical reaction sulfur and oxygen were the reactants, and sulfur trioxide is the product. Write the correct balanced chemical equation for this reaction.
2 S + 3 O2 →2 SO2
In an electron dot diagram, the dots around the element's symbol are used to represent.
only valence electrons
In the compound MgCl2, the subscript 2 indicates that
every magnesium ion
What can you assume has happened if an electron moves to a higher energy level?
the electron gained energy
Which subatomic particle has the least mass?
What does the electron cloud model describe?
the most likely location of electrons in atoms
The water molecule H2O is polar because it contains two polar single bonds, and the shape of the molecule is?
Describe two properties of metals. (answer varies)
conducts heat and electricity, malleable and ductile.
Write three elements from the periodic table which are metals. (answer varies)
tin, copper and cesium
To find the number of neutrons in an atom, you would subtract?
atomic number from the mass number
Forces of attraction limit the motion of particles most in a?
A material that is malleable and conducts electricity is most likely? (answer varies)
The name iron(II) indicates that a compound contains what? ion(s) with a what charge?
iron and 2+ charge
what will cause a decrease in gas pressure in a closed container?
Lowering the temperature
The tendency of an element to react is closely related to?
The number of valence electrons in atoms of the element
Collisions of gas molecules with the walls of a closed container causes?
Methane, CH4, burns in oxygen gas to form water and carbon dioxide. Write the correct
balanced chemical equation for this reaction.?(Hint remember that oxygen is a diatomic molecule, so it has to be O2)
CH2 + 2 O2 →2 H2O + CO2
The formation of an ionic bond involves the (transfer/sharing) of electrons?
In the name carbon dioxide, the prefix of the second word indicates that a molecule of carbon dioxide contains?
two oxygen atoms
The phase change in which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid is?
The total amount of energy before and after a chemical reaction is the same. Thus, energy is?
The number of which subatomic particle will be the same for atoms of an element?
If an object has a volume of 250 cm3 and a mass of 125 grams, what is the object's density and will it float or sink?
125/250 cm3 = 0.5 8/cm3 It will float because...
he result of an ionic bond is the transfer of electrons from a? to a? Example: NaCl
metal to a nonmetal
Write a clue that a chemical change has occurred. (answer varies)
change in color. production of a gas, formation of a precipitate
Write an example of a physical change. (answer varies)
sawing a piece of wood in half
Which subatomic particle has a negative charge?
In a polar covalent bond, electrons are shared (equally or unequally) between atoms?
In an atomic model that includes a nucleus, the positive charge is located?
with a concentration in the center of the atom?
What factors affects the pressure of an enclosed gas?
temperature, volume, and number of particles
Which of the following has the highest viscosity: Milk, Corn Syrup, or Water?
The temperature and volume in a closed container of gas remain constant. If the number of particles of gas is increased, the gas pressure will ?
What physical property can be measured with a thermometer?
The Periodic Table contains how many periods? And how many groups?
7 period 18 groups
Flammability and ? are examples of chemical properties
Name a material that is malleable. (answer varies)
How many neutrons does Gold have?
118 because subtract the atomic number (78) from the mass number (197
What is the result of a force distributed over an area?
pressure because force is divided by area
Atoms of the most reactive elements tend to have ? or ? valence electrons.
1 or 7
What physical property measures the space an object takes up?
Rutherford's gold foil experiment provided evidence for what?
there is a dense positively charged mass in the center of the atom
Write the chemical formula that accurately represents the molecule Sulfur Hexafluoride.
The Greek philosopher Democritus coined what word for a tiny piece of matter that cannot be divided?
Substances that cannot be broken down by chemical means into other substances are called?
Greek prefixes are used to indicate the number of atoms of each element in what type of bond?
Roman Numerals are used to indicate the charge on what group of elements on the periodic table?
The ionically bonded substance with the formula Mg3N2 would be named?
When an atom gains or loses electrons, it becomes a? of the element.
The numbers that appear before each substance in a chemical equation and are called?
To balance the chemical equation: 1 C3H8 + ___O2 3CO2 + 4 H2O, what number should be placed in the blank?
All the elements in Group 2 on the periodic table have the same number of?
When the non-metal Nitrogen loses three electrons, it becomes an ion with what charge?
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