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Johannes Kepler

German astronomer who proved mathematically that the planets revolve around the sun

Louis XVI

French absolute monarch who was called the "Sun King"


Thought that people are naturally selfish and violent, government is need to keep order, and conflict is part of human nature (Leviathan)

Issac Newton

English mathematician and scientist, universal law of gravity, discovered Calculus

state of nature

the hypothetical condition of people living together in society, the basis of natural right philosophy


French philosopher and writer who fought for tolerance, reason, and limited government

Scientific revolution

change in the ways of thinking about the physical world (16th and 17th centuries)

separation of powers

the division on government into several branches, each having its on power


French mathematician, relied on math and logic, "I think therefore I am". He and Francis Bacon are credited for creating the Scientific Method

heliocentric theory

the theory that the sun us in the center of the universe

divine right of kings

the idea that monarchs are God;s representatives on earth and are therefore answerable only to God


first to propose heliocentric universe

scientific method

a logical procedure for gathering information and testing ideas that involves the use of hypotheses, experimentation, and observation

social contract

a term created by thomas Hobbes to describe and agreement where people give up their individual rights in exchange for the law and order provided by government


French philosopher and writer, wrote the social contract (people would have a direct democracy, everyone would and could vote)

enlightenment despot

absolute power but nicer

geocentric theory

the belief that the Earth is the center of the universe

absolute monarch

a king or queen that has absolute power and seeks to control all

Frances Bacon

English politician and writer who believed science could help people live more comfortable lives and better understand the world around them. helped create the scientific method


french philosopher and author, lasting contribution is the separation of power in government


planets circle the sun and moon which circles the earth


Italian astronomer who invented telescope, Catholic church turned against him and put him on life-long house arrest


published book on the movement of heart and blood, researched circulation


improved microscope to create drawing of blood, classified microscopic creatures

Spirit of Laws

written by Montesquieu about the three branches of government and that different countries need different laws.


the belief that God made everything then let it go off on it's own

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