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German astronomer who proved mathematically that the planets revolve around the sun
French absolute monarch who was called the "Sun King"
Thought that people are naturally selfish and violent, government is need to keep order, and conflict is part of human nature (Leviathan)
English mathematician and scientist, universal law of gravity, discovered Calculus
state of nature
the hypothetical condition of people living together in society, the basis of natural right philosophy
French philosopher and writer who fought for tolerance, reason, and limited government
change in the ways of thinking about the physical world (16th and 17th centuries)
separation of powers
the division on government into several branches, each having its on power
French mathematician, relied on math and logic, "I think therefore I am". He and Francis Bacon are credited for creating the Scientific Method
the theory that the sun us in the center of the universe
divine right of kings
the idea that monarchs are God;s representatives on earth and are therefore answerable only to God
first to propose heliocentric universe
a logical procedure for gathering information and testing ideas that involves the use of hypotheses, experimentation, and observation
a term created by thomas Hobbes to describe and agreement where people give up their individual rights in exchange for the law and order provided by government
French philosopher and writer, wrote the social contract (people would have a direct democracy, everyone would and could vote)
absolute power but nicer
the belief that the Earth is the center of the universe
a king or queen that has absolute power and seeks to control all
English politician and writer who believed science could help people live more comfortable lives and better understand the world around them. helped create the scientific method
french philosopher and author, lasting contribution is the separation of power in government
planets circle the sun and moon which circles the earth
Italian astronomer who invented telescope, Catholic church turned against him and put him on life-long house arrest
published book on the movement of heart and blood, researched circulation
improved microscope to create drawing of blood, classified microscopic creatures
Spirit of Laws
written by Montesquieu about the three branches of government and that different countries need different laws.
the belief that God made everything then let it go off on it's own