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Psycology Module

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Developmental Psychology
studies age-related changes in behavior and mental process from conception
Key theoretical debates
nature vs nurture, continuous vs stages, stability vs change
3 key areas of early childhood development
physical, cognitive, and social
Physical development
as a child develops its neurons grow in size ad the number of dendrites and axons increase
we develop...
top down, inside out
Sensory and perceptual development
smell, taste, touch, and hearing are well developed at birth, vision is poorly developed at birth
Cognitive development
children usually don't form long-term memories until 3 1/2 years, yet they may retain unconscious memory
Piaget's stage
sensorimotor, preperational, concrete operational, formal operation
Sensorimotor
stage one, experiencing the world through senses
preoperational
stage two, uses words and images to represent the world, don't necessarily have logic
concrete operational
stage three, logical thinking, can't think abstractly
formal operational
stage 4, abstract thinking
Adulthood physical
the pupil shrinking and lens become less transparent, immune system slowly weakens, speed of neural processing decreases, women: menopause around 50, Men: gradual decline in virility
Adulthood cognitive
crystallized intelligence increase with age, fluid intelligence decrease with age, working memory remains relatively stable until 65yrs.
Kubler-Ross stage of grief
denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
Hearing
sound waves are created as vibrating objects push molecules back and forth.
Frequency
number of cycles/time
amplitude
physical stretch of wave
pitch
determine by frequency
loudness
determined by amplitude
timbre
the mixture of tones
parts of the ear
pinna, eardrum, middle ear, cochlea
Olfaction
smell
The point of smell
nice to have, identify different gender, trigger for memory, good for productivity, danger
gustation
sense of taste
5 types of taste
sweet, sour, salty, bitter, unami,
types of body senses
vestibular sense, orientation and position with respect to gravity, kinetheia
classical conditioning
based on associating stimuli
learning
long term change in behavior due to experience
conditioning
process of learning associations
Learning: behaviorism
learning explained on the basis of external factors.
learning =performance
Learning: cognitive
response to behaviorism, behavior explained on the basis of internal factors, learning is more than performance, we are active learners and out thoughts matter
Ivan Pavlov
salivating dog test
John Watson
Little Albert, study babies, fears are learned not inheritable
Stimulus response
events in the environment cause a behavioral response
Learning process
natural (unconditioned) stimulus/response: situation, UCS & UCR, consistently pair the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) with something else (natural stimulus) acquisition happens, remove the original unconditioned stimulus (UCS), the new conditioned stimulus (CS)will produce the same result (CR=UCR)
Learning application: Systematic Desensitization
a theory technique to replace anxiety responses with relaxation responses
Operant Conditioning
explains learning as a process in which behavior is shaped and maintained by consequences
B.F. Skinner's theory
antecedent=particular situation, behavior=response, consequences ...ABC
Reinforcement
used to increase behavior, positive: add something good to increase the behavior, negative: Remove something bad to increase behavior
Punishment
used to decrease behavior, positive: Add something bad to decrease the behavior, negative: remove something good to decrease the behavior
Reinforcement schedules
continuous reinforcement , partial reinforcement, fixed ratio and interval, variable ratio and interval, ratio is better than intervals
Process of operant conditioning
specify desired behavior, identify effective reinforce, continually reinforce desired behavior, slowly move the continuous to partial reinforcement
Operant Conditioning: Shaping
technique were rewards are used to gradually guide behavior toward desired goal
Learning application: behavioral modification
associating desired behaviors with positive associations
Discipline
attention-is a reinforce, time outs, rewards