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Reproductive Systems- Plant & Animal
Terms in this set (140)
Reproduction without genetic recombination, the remitting of genes. Reproduction via mitosis.
Asexual Reproduction Advantages
-No partner/male needed
-Saves time, effort, and energy producing flowers
Asexual Reproduction Disadvantages
-No genetic recombination
-Slow adaptation to changes in the environment, makes it difficult to evolve
Naturally Occurring Asexual Reproduction
Above ground stem, with a new plant on the end of it.
Below ground stem, with a new plant on the end of it.
Sprouts develop from a recently cut tree or bush.
New bulblets develop around the old bulb each year.
Seed formation via mitosis. Seed is a clone of the parent plant.
Human Influenced Asexual Reproduction
Cut a twig or bud off of one tree and splice it into another tree.
Cut a piece off of a plant and place it in a glass of water or in moist soil until it grows roots, then plant it.
Bury a branch/stem until it forms roots, cut away the original branch connecting to the parent plant.
Done in a laboratory with high value plants, very small pieces can be used to make an entire new plant.
Gender Neutral Flower Parts
Leafy greens that surround and protect the flower bud.
Modified leaves that are colorful and fragrant to attract pollinators.
Where the flower joins the stem.
Male Flower Parts
Site of meiosis, pollen produced here.
Positions the anther to aid pollen movement.
Contains plant sperm.
Female Flower Parts
Stick tip of pistil, site of pollination.
Positions the stigma to aid pollination.
-Gonad, where gametes are made
-Contains the eggs/ovules.
Flowers with all male and female parts.
Flowers that lack either male or female parts.
Has all male, female, and gender neutral parts.
Has one or more male, female, or gender neutral parts.
The movement of pollen from the anther of one flower to the stigma of another.
Pollination from the anther to the stigma of the same plant.
Pollination from the anther to the stigma of a different plant.
Types of Pollinators
-Reptiles, mammals, & amphibians
The union of sperm (pollen) and egg (ovule).
1) Pollination happens first (pollen lands on the stigma)
2) Pollen germinates and grows a pollen tube
3) Two sperm nuclei pass down through the pollen tube to the ovary
4) One sperm fertilizes the ovule, this forms the plant embryo or baby plant
5) The other sperm triggers double fertilization and creates the endosperm, a nutrient source for the embryo
6) Seed formation follows double fertilization
7) In many plants, seeds form inside of a fleshy or dry fruit. The fruit develops from the ovary of the pistil.
What is a seed?
An embryonic plant, provided with a nutrient source and a protective covering.
Seeds contain a plant embryo and a stored energy source.
Seed coat, skin on exterior of seed.
The embryonic root.
The embryonic leaves.
Seed leaves, looks like a seed, turn into leaves.
Part of the plant above the cotyledons.
Part of the plant below the cotyledons.
Methods of Seed Dispersal by Plants
-Eat & Poop
-Store & Forget
Oxygen: for cellular respiration.
Water: solution for chemical reactions of life.
Warmth: ideal conditions for enzymes to work.
Life Span of Plants- Annuals
-Grows from seed to maturity to seed in one year.
-One year life cycle.
Life Span of Plants- Biennials
-Two stages of life, first year is vegetative, the second year the plant is mature and makes seeds
-Two year life cycle
Life Span of Plants- Perennials
-Lives and produces seeds for many years.
-Multi year life cycle
This is how plants communicate within their body.
-Plants produce a variety of hormones that act as chemical signals to regulate daily and seasonal activities within the plant body
-Hormones travel through the vascular tissues (xylem/phloem) in all directions, to all types of tissues in the plant
Hormones are responsible for...
-Leaf abscission (leaf drop)
Female Reproductive Organ
-Produces eggs and hormones
-Lower thoracic cavity, pelvis
Produced via meiosis, haploid cells, 23 chromosomes.
When are the eggs made?
-Prior to birth, egg cells begin meiosis
-Puberty triggers resumption of meiosis
When are the eggs released?
-Puberty- female starts making estrogen
-1 follicle matures/releases an egg every 28 days
-Ovulation: the release of egg from follicle
How long does the egg live?
Approximately 6 days.
-Pathway egg takes to the uterus
-Fertilization happens here
-Muscular, pear shaped organ
-Egg implants in blood rich lining or endometrium
-Blood rich lining of the uterus
-Provides link to mother for gas, nutrient, and waste exchange
Ring of muscle forming opening at the base of the uterus.
Where sperm is deposited, birth canal through which baby is born.
Secondary Sex Characteristics - Female
Hormones at puberty trigger these changes
Female Reproductive Hormones
-Estrogen & progesterone
-Both made in the ovary
-Triggers egg development and endometrial lining formation
-Made by the follicles
-Prepares the female body for pregnancy/maintains the uterus during pregnancy
-Produced by the corpus luteum
Stages of Female Sexual Development
Infant -> Toddle -> Juvenile:
-Early growth and development stages
-Sexual maturity is reached (12-14)
-Brain hormones trigger secondary sex characteristics to develop
Male Reproductive Organ
-Produces sperm and hormones
-Located outside of the thoracic wall, in the scrotum
-Temp is cooler, aids sperm development
Produced via meiosis, haploid cell, 23 chromosomes.
Where are sperm made?
Seminiferous tubules, in the testes.
How are sperm released?
Ejaculation, rhythmic waves push sperm and semen from the body (like peristalsis).
How long do sperm live?
A few short days.
Where does a sperm meet and fertilize an egg?
Meiosis happens here.
Sperm finish development here.
-Sperm stored here
-First half of reproductive tract
Semen produced here.
Semen produced here.
-Semen produced here
-Sugary fuel for sperm
-Last half of reproductive tract
-Carries sperm/semen out of body
Deposits sperm into the vagina.
Sperm vs. Semen
-Sperm: a reproductive cell
-Semen: fluids from glands that aid sperm movement and survival
-Removal of the foreskin
-A religious and/or cultural tradition
Secondary Sex Characteristics - Male
Male Reproductive Hormones
-Produced by the testis
-Triggers secondary sex characteristics
Estrous Cycle Ex/ Animals
Most mammals, except for primates.
-Sex hormones increase on a seasonal basis
-Fertility is generally limited to once or a few times a year
-Females enter into rut or heat when they are receptive to mating
-Ovulation can be:
-Spontaneous (without stimulus - coitos)
-Induced (triggered - toitus)
-Endometrium is reabsorbed rather than shed at the end of the cycle or if conception does not happen
Menstrual cycle Ex/ Animals
Humans and other primates (great apes).
-Regular fertility cycles occur, often monthly
-Year round fertility
-Ovulation is spontaneous
-Endometrium is shed and expelled from the uterus at the end of the cycle - menstruation
Hormones Responsible for the Menstrual Cycle
-Regulated by the pituitary gland
-Hormonal signals from the brain trigger changes in the ovary and egg
-in turn produce other hormones to send signals back to the brain and onto the uterus
-Interplay of brain & ovarian hormones creates the events of the menstrual cycle
-FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone)
-LH (Luteinizing Hormone)
-Stimulate the ovary, triggering estrogen production and maturing of the follicle and its egg
-Stimulates the follicle to release the egg, triggers ovulation
-Follicle to become the corpus luteum
Hormone Levels and the Menstrual Cycle
Menstruation (Destructive Phase)
-All hormone levels drop to low levels
-Cycle is resetting
-Endometrial lining degrades and menstrual bleeding starts
Follicle Stage (Proliferative Phase)
-FDH levels increase, ovary responds by stimulating the follicle
-Follicle matures, it produces increasing levels of estrogen, egg matures
-Estrogen level is read by the brain, brain releases luteinizing hormone
-Hormones - FSH and Estrogen reach their peak, follicle increases progesterone production
-LH triggers ovulation
Corpus Luteum Stage (Secretory Phase)
-Following ovulation, the follicle is now called the Corpus Luteum
-Corpus Luteum's new role is to produce progesterone to prepare the uterus for implantation of an embryo
-Endometrial lining swells due to progesterone
-FSH, LH, and estrogen levels drop, the brain is waiting for a hormonal signal to indicate conception/pregnancy
-No pregnancy signal is detected, LH and progesterone levels drop
Birth Control and the Menstrual Cycle
There are many different hormonal birth control products on the market today. Hormones can be used to fool the body into thinking it is pregnant, consequently no ovulation occurs. The most common hormonal forms of birth control contain combinations of artificial:
-Estrogen and Progesterone
Other hormonal forms of birth control target one or more key biological mechanisms that:
-Thickens cervical mucus (halts sperm movement)
-Impairs embryo implantation in uterus
Fertilization - Human
-Union of sperm and egg
-Forms a zygote
-A diploid cell (2n)
-Happens in the oviduct "normally"
-Implantation occurs in the Uterus -> uterine lining
-Implantation happens 5-10 days after fertilization
-Late or missing period
-Chemical test - hormonal signal from embryo
-HCG - Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
-Morning sickness - gut feeling of pregnancy
-First trimester - nausea, vomiting
Developmental Stages of Baby
-Cleavage Furrow Stage
-First body cell
-Diploid chromosome number (2n)
The zygote undergoes several rounds of synchronized mitosis
-A ball of cells
-7+- cell divisions
-Hollow ball of cells
-Specialization of cells occurs
-Gastrovascular cavity forms
-Tissue layers forming
Cleavage Furrow Stage
Formation of spinal tube/backbone.
Head region becomes evident.
-Includes all of the stages during weeks 0-8
-All stages discussed so far
Weeks 9 -> birth
Fetal Tissues of Pregnancy
-Sac-like membrane surrounding child
-Filled with fluid
-Organ of exchange between mother and baby
-In -> 02, water, nutrients
-Out <- CO2, urea
-Connects baby to placenta
-2 arteries from baby, removes waste
-1 vein returns to baby, brings good stuff
Changes that mom experiences during pregnancy:
-Increased circulatory and respiratory demands
-Pulse and breathing rates increase
-Increased nutritional needs, eating for two
-Folic Acid - spine formation
-Calcium - bone formation
-Morning sickness, food sensitivity
-Abdominal organ crowding
-Weight gain: Ideally around 25 pounds
-Body temperature: feel warmer
-Fatigue: tire quickly
-Stretchy tendons, aids delivery
Labor: Delivery of the Child
-Uterus begins contractions, start out weak
-Amniotic sac breaks, fluid is lost
-Contractions increase in strength and frequency
-Many hours go by
-Cervix must dilate 10-12 cm before pushing
-Traditional pain medication slows contractions and delivery
-Epidural is a common choice these days
Position of baby during labor:
-Face down (best)
-Face up (ok)
-Breech : Feet first
-Transverse : crosswise
-Arm of leg presentation
-Cesarean Section: Surgical delivery of the child
Immediately Upon Birth
-Clean baby: suction out mouth and nostrils
-Check vital signs
-Clamp and cut umbilical cord
-Deliver afterbirth, about 10-30 minutes later
Lactation: Milk Production
-From mammary glands
-Stimulates breast development and milk production
-First milk, low in fat and sugars
-High in proteins and antibodies for immune response
-Starts after 4-5 days
-Breast milk contains whatever mom eats, drinks or smokes
Abrupt Changes for Baby
-Temperature of environment
-98.6 -> 72 degrees
-Lung usage - gas exchange
-Food getting - breast feeding
-Waste disposal - meconium - baby's first poop
-Change in blood circulation pathway - atrial septal defect
-One or btoh testivles fail to move from the abdomen to the scrotum during fetal development
-Causes: Various developmental, genetic, and environmental factors
-Symptoms: The testis is not in the scrotum
-Treatment: Generally the problem with self correct within a few months of birth
-Difficulty conceiving a child
-Causes: due to low sperm production, misshapen or immobile sperm, blockage, illness, injury or other factors
-Symptoms: Low, no, or misshapen sperm evident upon microscopic exam
-Treatment: Identify the underlying problem and treat it. Treatments vary greatly based on the problem.
-Inflammation of the epididymis
-Causes: Bacterial infection or sexually transmitted infection (STI)
-Symptoms: Pain and swelling at the back of the testis.
-Treatment: Antibiotics is the most common form of treatment.
-Causes: Usually due to blunt force trauma (sports, auto accident, etc...)
-Symptoms: Pain and swelling at the back of the testis
-Treatment: Pain relief, additional treatment as needed
-Causes: It is not clear what causes testicular cancer. Most common form of cancer in males.
-Symptoms: Presence of a lump on a testicle, dull ache in abdomen, discomfort in a testicle
-Treatments: Depend on type and stage of the cancer, surgical removal is the most common option, radiation and chemotherapy is less frequently used
-Causes: Enlargement is a normal part of aging
-Symptoms: Difficulty urinating or emptying the bladder
-Treatments: Medications and surgery, surgery can cause additional complications (bladder control, erectile disfunction)
-Causes: it is not clear what causes prostate cancer
-Symptoms: trouble urinating, discomfort, blood in urine, erectile dysfunction
-Treatments: Depends of several factors, may not be treated immediately. It is a slow growing cancer where treatment can create bladder control problems and sexual dysfunction
-The tissue that normally lines the uterus grows outside the uterus in the pelvic area
-The tissue still behave the same, it thickens, breaks down, and bleeds with each menstrual cycle
-However, the discharge is trapped inside the body
-Causes: Various possibilities, most likely due to cells backfiring through the oviduct into the abdomen where they take root and grow
-Symptoms: Severe pain during menstruation, intercourse, urination. Infertility is very common
-Treatment: Medication first (pain med or hormones) or surgery as a last resort
-Causes: Inflammation of the vagina due to various infections or hormonal imbalance
-Symptoms: discharge, pain, spotting, and itching
-Treatment: antibiotic or hormone treatments
-Causes: causes are unclear, genetic risk is a factor
-Symptoms: Abdominal pressure, pelvic discomfort, indigestion, constipation, lack of energy
-Treatment: A combination of surgery and chemotherapy
-Fluid filled sacs within or on the ovary. Most women have them at one time or another with no discomfort.
-Causes: A mature follicle doesn't release its egg, it continues to grow, becomes dysfunctional
-Symptoms: Most cysts do not trigger symptoms, abdominal discomfort
-Treatment: Depends on the type and size of the cyst. Generally you wait and see if it goes away on its own. Use of birth control reduces future redevelopment. Surgery in extreme cases.
-Causes: HPV, human papillomavirus an STI is the leading cause
-Symptoms: No early symptoms, pain, vaginal discharge, and bleeding occur later
-Treatment: Hysterectomy (removal of cervix and uterus) is used to treat early stages, radiation and chemotherapy is added for more advanced stages
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
-Causes: HPV, human papillomavirus and STI most cases
-Symptoms: No early symptoms, advanced cases involve bleeding, discharge, pain
-Treatment: Get vaccination for HPV. Hysterectomy used to treat early stages, radiation and chemotherapy are added in more advanced cases.
-Causes: A bacterial infection spread by unprotected sex
-Can be passed to babies at childbirth (eyes)
-Symptoms: Early stage symptoms are milk and easily over looking in males and more obvious for females. Abdominal and urinary pain, discharge and painful sex in women
-A bacterial infection - STI
-Causes: An infection spread by unprotected sex
-Symptoms: A common infection that typically exhibits no symptoms. Urinary pain becomes evident over time