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Tissue healing 2
Terms in this set (72)
Identify the 4 types of soft tissue?`
Skin, vessel & organ linings
Tendons, ligaments, cartilage, fat, blood, and bone
Skeletal, smooth, cardiac muscle
Brain, spinal cord & nerves
Define soft tissue atrophy?
A decrease in the size of tissue due to cell death and re-absorption or decreased cell proliferation
Define soft tissue hypertrophy?
An increase in the size of tissue without necessarily changing the number of cells
Why does cartilage tissue have a low capacity to heal?
Little or no direct blood supply
What is the best scenario for a cartilage to heal normally?
For the cartilage injury to include some subchondral bone damage. The blood supply from the bone injury will help to heal the cartilage.
What is the expected time frame for cartilage healing?
If granulation tissue is present, healing proceeds normally in about 2 months
Describe the course of healing for ligamentous injuries?
Follows similar healing course as other vascular tissues
What is the expected time frame for ligamentous healing?
Full healing may require 12 months depending on severity of injury
Do surgically repaired ligaments heal to be stronger than the pre-injury ligament and why?
Surgically repaired ligaments tend to be stronger due to decreased scar formation
What is the expected time frame for skeletal muscle healing?
Healing could last 6-8 weeks depending on muscle injured and severity of injury
Formation of excessive fibrous tissue
What is the expected time frame for tendon healing?
Depends on severity and type of tendon injury, but typically 4-5 weeks
At what rate can we expect a nerve to regenerate?
3-4 mm per day
Which type of nerve heals better, CNS nerve or peripheral nerve?
What do we know about the relationship between a person's age and their ability to heal soft tissue?
Healing in older patients may take longer
What is the most common form of drug intervention utilized pertaining to soft tissue healing?
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAID's)
Define the role of NSAIDS in reference to soft tissue healing?
Medications will work to decrease vasodilation and capillary permeability
During which phase of healing is the use of NSAID's contraindicative?
Beginning of phase I of the healing process
Identify the three categories of therapeutic modalities found in chapter 10?
Define the two different forms of thermal agents and their role in tissue healing? Also give two examples of forms of each thermal agent
Heat- decrease pain, decrease edema and increase bloodflow. Heating pad, moist heat pack, hot water submersion
Cold- is utilized to slow inflammatory process and reduce pain. Ice bag, Ice massage, cold water submersion
Define the role of electrical modalities in tissue healing?
Used in the treatment of inflammation and/or pain
Define the role of therapeutic exercise in tissue healing?
Major aim involves pain free movement, full strength, power, and full extensibility of associated muscles
Define why immobilization's role in tissue healing is crucial but dangerous?
Immobilization can be beneficial, especially in the early stages of soft tissue healing; however, excessive immobilization, while sometimes necessary, can have a negative impact on an injury
What is the average healing time for fractures?
Healing time will range from 3-8 weeks
List three factors that determine healing rate for fractures?
Severity of fx
Location of fx
How long is immobilization recommended for a bone fracture?
Until X-rays reveal the presence of a hard callus over fracture site
List three potential conditions that clinicians must be certain do not interfere with healing?
Poor blood supply
Define avascular necrosis?
Bone death occuring from poor blood supply
Identify the most common sites for avascular necrosis?
Navicular of the wrist (scaphoid)
List two potential consequences of improper immobilization?
Poor casting can allow for motion between bone parts
Movement between bones may prevent proper union or result in bony deformity
What does early recognition of stress fractures help to prevent?
Complete bone fractures
What is the treatment for a stress fracture?
Decreased activity and elimination of factors causing excess stress
What is the main indicator of extent of an injury?
List the four sources of pain?
Describe cutaneous pain?
Pain is sharp, bright and burning with fast and slow onset
Describe deep somatic pain?
Pain originates in tendons, muscles, joints, periosteum and blood vessels
Describe visceral pain?
Visceral pain begins in organs and is diffused at first and may become localized
Describe psychogenic pain?
Psychogenic pain is felt by the individual but is emotional rather than physical
Define referred pain?
Pain which occurs away from actual site of injury/irritation
List four types of referred pain?
Explain what is the best reflection of pain and discomfort?
Subjective or self report
Identify the technique commonly used to assess pain?
Numeric rating scale or happy-face numeric scale
Relief from pain
_____________________ is defined as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience that is subjective and associated with actual or potential tissue damage?
_____________________ are small, hyperirritible areas within a muscle in which nerve impulses bombard the CNS and can be expressed as referred pain?
Define the term nociceptor?
Identify the most accurate diagnostic test used to r/o stress fractures?
Identify 3 factors involved in eliciting pain?
Psychological, social, cultural and cognitive factors
Define the term acute pain?
Pain that is directly related to soft tissue damage that is of short duration but it gradually resolves as the injured tissues heal
Define the term chronic pain?
Pain that extends beyond the expected period of healing
____________________________ are used, in conjunction with exercise, to relieve pain and control other signs and symptoms of injury?
List 5 examples of therapeutic modalities we use in sports medicine?
Identify the most common category of OTC drug that medicine sports medicine professionals prescribe to treat pain with injuries?
Define the term topical analgesic?
Any topical cream, ointment or lotion used to help reduce pain
List two reasons why an athlete's pain may be increased at night?
Due to solitude and absence of external distractions
Patients, through __________________, are often able to endure pain and block sensations of minor injuries?
Define the term metaplasia?
Transformation of tissue from one type to another that is not normal for that tissue
Define the term dysplasia?
Abnormal development of tissue
Identify 3 factors that could affect ligamentous healing?
With intra-articular tears synovial fluid will dilute hematoma and prevent clotting and spontaneous healing
Exercised ligaments are stronger
Increased strength in the muscles that act on the injured joint will increase joint stability
Surgically repaired ligaments tend to be stronger than nonrepaired ligaments due to decreased scar formation
During muscle healing, there is an increase in the number of ______________________ that leads to fibrosis. At same time, ____________________ form at the injury site to begin the regeneration of new myofibrils?
The ____________________________ is comprised of the brain and spinal cord. The ____________________________ is comprised of all motor and sensory nerves of the body?
Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System
Identify the two most common active ingredients found in OTC NSAID's and give a brand name example of each
Ibuprofen- Advil, Motrin
Naproxen Sodium- Aleve
Identify four natural variables which help determine the length of bone healing?
Site of fx (smaller bones heal quicker)
Severity of the fracture
Age of the patient (younger heal quicker)
Identify the type of fracture that is caused by repetitive stresses that cause the stress-bearing capacity of the bone to decrease, hence, causing this type of fx?
Identify the 5 stages of bone healing?
1. Hematoma formation
2. Cellular proliferation
3. Callus formation
______________________ pain is caused by trigger points within muscle resulting in bombardment of CNS?
Define the term sclerotomic pain?
Deep aching and poorly localized pain caused by injury to a bone
Define the term dermatomic pain?
Sharp and localized pain caused by injury to the skin
Define the term myotomic pain?
Dull aching pain that radiates caused by injury to a muscle
Identify 5 assessments techniques used to rate pain?
Visual analog scales (one end marked no pain to other end with severe pain)
McGill Pain questionnaire
Activity pain indicator profiles
Numeric rating scale (0-10)
Identify 4 types of modalities and explain their goal in tissue healing?
Thermal agents (hot/cold) for pain control and control swelling
Electrical modalities (E-stim) to reduce pain and control swelling
Massage used to relax spasms and swelling control
Acupuncture for pain control
Identify what the acronym OTC stands for?
Over The Counter
This set is often in folders with...
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Anatomy: Body Regions
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