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This set consists of several copied sets from this site. There may be duplicates and misspellings. I felt it was best to combine several variations of cards for different learning styles.

Which radiology innovator is known as the father of the science of radiation protection?

Willhelm Roentgen

What is the source of electrons used for x-ray production?

Tungsten filament

Where does the generation of xrays in the xray tube actually occur?

Tungsten target

Which theory best describes the free radical formation that is so injurious to living tissue?

Indirect theory

What unit of radiation represents the amount of radiation energy absorbed by the tissue?


What factor is most important when considering the biologic effects of radiation used in dentistry?

Limited area exposure

Which cell type is the most sensitive to radiation?

Immature cells

What reduces operator exposure to radiation?


Which radiographic technique has less distortion and magnification and creates a more accurate image on film?


What is used to restrict the size of the xray beam?


If the source-to-film distance is changed from 8 to 24 inches, the intensity of the beam becomes __________.

1/9th as intense

The greatest cause of human radiation effects in dental radiography involve _________.

Free radicals of water

Cell sensitivity to radiation is most pronounced when?

During mitosis, periods of increased metabolism and during embryonic development

How many impulses equal a 1/4 second exposure time?


As you go from a "D-speed" film to an "E-speed" film, the exposure time should be approximately ________.


The mA setting controls what?

Heat of the tube filament
Number of free electrons in the tube
number of photons ultimately produced
The density of the film

A bite wing film is exposed properly using an exposure setting of 1 second with the xray source 8 in from the patient. What time would be needed if the source was moved 16 inches away?

4 seconds

For optimal detection of incipient interproximal caries, what machine setting is preferable?

65 Kvp, 10 mA

What controls the quality of the xray beam and thus film contrast?

Aluminum filtration

Increasing the kVp results in :___________.

A long scale of contrast

The primary purpose of sodium thiosulfate is to ________.

Remove the silver bromide crystals that have not been developed and enhance contrast

Films not fixed for a long enough period of time will appear ___.

To have a brown tint

For reducing scatter radiation, the collimation or restriction of the radiation beam at the patient's face should not exceed ___________.

2.75 inches

The most radiation sensitive tissue is _________.

Hematopoietic (Blood)

Which of the following PID's will reduce scatter radiation most effectively?

Long, rectangular, lead lined

If a person who works with radiation and wears a film badge or TLD dosimeter and has radiographs taken on themselves as a patient, what should be done with the dosimeter during exposure?

Leave the badge outside of the room

If a machine operated with good radiographic results at a setting of 10mA and 12 impulses, what exposure time should be used if the machine is set to 12 mA?

10 impulses

What is the proper thickness of the lead lining in radiographic lead aprons and thyroid collars?

0.25 mm equivalent

A film that has turned brown over a span of one year may have resulted from __________.

Insufficient wash

What is the most radiolucent dental material seen on dental radiographs?


Which film processing ingredients converts energized crystals into metallic silver?


What is the processing order that films undergo in an automatic film processor?

Developer, fixer, water, dry

What is the least likely to cause a fogged film out of
improper safelighting
developer spots
outdated film
light leakage

Developer spots

What radiopaque maxillary anatomic landmark is MOST LIKELY to be seen on a maxillary incisor periapical film?

Nasal septum

Partially formed third molars on a panoramic radiograph indicate that the patient is MOST likely how old?

11-15 yrs old

Overlap on a left molar bitewing radiograph is caused by improper __________.

Horizontal angulation

A pt of record complains of temperature sensitivity in the maxillary right second molar region of the mouth. A CMRS was taken 2 years ago. Which radiograph should be prescribed?


A radiolucent shadow that obscures the apices of the maxillary dentition on a pano indicated that what error occurred?

The tongue was not touching the palate

The lead diaphragm in the tube head is referred to as the _______.


Developing solution splashed on the film prior to processing will result in __________.

Dark spots

Which of the following increases penumbra (blurriness)?

Reduced focal spot size

On a mandibular molar film the most superior radiopaque anatomic landmark is the _____________.

External oblique ridge

A white area with a right-angle-shaped border on a film is caused by ________.

Rectangular PID

Apprx. what percent of energy released in the xray tube is released as xrays?


Ionization has occurred when _______.

An electron is displaced from its orbit

Changing from 75 kVp to 90 kVp will ________.

Decrease radiographic contrast

What characteristic of body tissue determines its sensitivity to radiation?

Mitotic rate

The hamular process is observed on intraoral films in a view of the ____________.

Maxillary molar area

Which of the following combinations of structures appears radiolucent on a radiograph?

Nares, median suture, medullary spaces

Xrays differ from light in that xrays __________.

Have more energy

Greater penetration of xrays is obtained with __________.

Increased kVp

Radiation film fog may be caused by ______.

Secondary radiation

The speed at which electrons move across an xray tube is regulated by __________.


The ALARA concept endorses the use of the __________ possible exposure of the patient and operator to x-radiation to produce a diagnostically acceptable radiograph.


The ________ is a lead disk placed over the port (opening) of the xray head.


In the international system of radiation units, a rem is expressed as a __________.


To increase the vertical angulation, the head of the xray unit is pointed __________.


When the raised dot is placed outward (convex), the left side of the mounted radiograph corresponds to the ____ side of the patient's oral cavity.


_______ radiation is radiation that has been deflected from its path during the impact with matter.


To correct a foreshortened image, the vertical angulation is _________.


The ________ is a method for determining the relative location of an object hidden within the oral tissues.

Buccal object rule

The film emulsion is hardened during _________.


The hydroquinone in the developer brings out the ____ tones, whereas the Elon in the developer brings out the _____ tones on a dental radiograph.


The optimal temperature for the developer solution is ___.

68 degrees

A filter is inserted in the path of the direct xray beam to ________.

Absorb long wave radiation

Radiation film fog may be caused by _____________.

Secondary radiation

What are the purpose of the fixing solution in processing radiographs?

Harden emulsion & remove undeveloped silver halide salts

The overall blackness or darkness of a dental radiograph is termed ___________.


Increasing the milliamperage (mA) will cause _____________.

An increase in density; the film appears darker

Increasing the operating kilovoltage peak (kVp) will cause ___________.

An increase in density; the film appears darker

Xrays differ from light in that xrays ___________.

Have more energy

What material is the most effective in stopping xrays?


The rays that are most apt to be absorbed by the skin are xrays that are _______________.

Of long wavelength

The speed at which the electrons move across an xray tube is regulated by _____________.


Why is an increases target-film distance required in the paralleling technique?

To avoid image magnification

What is the relationship of the central ray to the film in the paralleling technique?

90 degrees to the film and the long axis of the tooth

A dental xray machine that is set at more than 70 kVp is required to have a total filtration of at least how many mm of aluminum?

2.5 mm

If the temperature of processing solutions is slightly above normal, radiographs of desired density may best be obtained by __________.

Decreasing developing time

A breakdown of chemicals in the processing solution that results from exposure to air is termed _________.


The super concentrated solution that is added to the processing solution to compensate for the effects of oxidation is termed __________.


Arrange the following cells and tissues from MOST sensitive to LEAST sensitive to ionizing radiation:
Adult bone and nerve
Epithelium and muscle
Alimentary tract and immature bone
Blood forming cells and reproductive cells

1. Blood forming cells and reproductive cells
2. Alimentary tract and immature bone
3. Epithelium and muscle
4. Adult bone and nerve

What characteristic of body tissue determines its sensitivity to radiation?

Mitotic rate

Both milliamperage setting and exposure time determine the __________.

# of xrays produced

What is the correct vertical angulation used with the bite-wing technique?

+10 degrees

Any leaks of white light into the darkroom will cause _____.

Film fog

The safelight must be placed where?

A minimum of 4 feet from the film and working area

A major difference between automatic and manual processing of radiographs is that automatic processing __________.

Requires special solutions at higher temperatures

The unsharpness or blurred edges seen on a radiographic image is termed ____________.


What is the best attenuator on a radiographic image?


What is the periapical lesion that is least likely to be seen on radiographs?

An acute alveolar abscess


The quality of the x-ray photons is determined by the

When using the bisecting method the object film distance is kept to a


The Coronoid Process

The marked prominence that appears on a maxillary molar periapical film as a triangular radiopacity superimposed over, or inferior to, the maxillary tuberosity region is


On intraoral radiographs, when the patient's right is on your left, this is called __________Mounting

Most lesions appear ________on processed radiographs


The protective coating on the emulsion is softened by the ________and hardened by the __________


Treating a patient without proper radiographs is a breach of the _________?

Standard of Care

Digital radiography requires less radiation than conventional radiography because the;

Sensor is more sensitive to x-rays


___________is the overall darkness of the radiograph

The purpose of the aluminum filter is the x-ray tube head is to remove the ____energy, _____wavelength, least penetrating from the beam


Proper prescribing of radiographs

_____________ is an example of a patient protection technique used before x-ray exposure

PID (Position Indicating Device)

The _________ is an extension of the x-ray tube head and is used to direct the x-ray beam.

Decreasing the Kilovoltage peak =

An increase in the contrast of a radiograph.

The date of processing

is not found on a film mount.

Increasing the Exposure time

increases the density of the radiograph.

Film is Dark


Long axis of the film

When using the bisecting technique, the imaginary angle that is bisected is formed between the long axis of the tooth and the;


On intraoral radiographs, when the patient's right is on your right, this is called __________ mounting


A _________is defined as a marked prominence or projection of bone

Many shades of gray

A radiograph that has _______is said to have low contrast


The quantity of x-rays produced is controlled by_________?

Film reversal

Which processing error results in the herringbone effects

Background Radiation

is that form of radiation that is in the environment and includes cosmic and terrestrial radiation

Appears radiolucent

median palatine suture


A concept of radiation protection that states that all exposure to radiation must be kept to a minimum is

Protons and neutrons

The nucleus of an atom contains;

Vital component to

Radiographs are a ________comprehensive patient care?


With size 2 films, a total of ___________anterior film placements are used with the paralleling technique?

Potential image

A latent image could be defined as

Mental Foramen

What would a round dark shadow in the bicuspid film be

Folding it

What would be harmful to the lead apron


What factor determines the penetrating quality of the x-ray beam

The solutions are not stirred

Films will be varying density if

Less Distortion

When changing from a short cone to a long cone, the resulting film will have

A collimator for dental x-ray machines is usually made of what material


Reduce radiation to the tissues surrounding the area to be examined

Collimation of the x-ray beam is accomplished through the use of washers placed in the path of the primary beam of radiation. The primary purpose of the collimator is to:

The most recommended collimation of the radiation beam at the patients skin is:

2 ¾ inches

The function of the lead diaphragm on the head of the x-ray machines is to:

Limit the size of the beam

Reduce radiation exposure to the patient

The intensifying screen used with Extraoral films functions to

Operator error

What is the major source of unnecessary radiation

The function of the collimator is to

Limit the size of the beam

Secondary Rays

In normal dental diagnostic procedures, the principal hazard to the operator is produced by

Secondary Rays

is not a desirable type of radiation

6 feet

What is the operator distance, from the x-ray source recommended by the national bureau of standards

measures of protection for the patient

Collimation, Filtration, Film speed, and Lead apron

Alveolar crest resorption is best detected in the

Bitewing film

Periapical film

shows the complete image of the tooth, from Incisal edge to apex, the alveolus, supporting mesial and distal one and surrounding bone beyond the apex.

It is never acceptable to

hold a film receptor for the patient during exposure.

When using bisecting technique, when the palate is high or the floor of the mouth is deep, you would

Decrease vertical angulation

The disto buccal root of the tooth # 3 appears smaller than normal the causative factor is

Vertical angle to high-horizontal angle to far mesial

"RAD" refers to a unit of

Absorbed dose

The person who should hold the film packets in the child's mouth is the


The principle reason for placing an aluminum filter in the primary beam or radiation

To obtain greater definition of the images of the teeth

A dentist using a film badge service to measure his radiation exposure gets a report from the film badge service stating the badge was exposed to 475 millirems in the previous mouth. The dentist should

Evaluate his x-ray procedures and take steps to reduce unnecessary radiation

Centric Ray or Central Ray

is the primary beam of radiation emanating from the aperture of the collimator of the x-ray tube head.

5 rem per year

The Maximum Permissible Dose (MPD) for each member of the dental staff must not exceed.

The patient's facial tissue changes due to repeated exposure to radiation it may have


If the temperature of the developer is too low, x-ray films will be


The following can produce a thin or light image on the x-ray film

Underexposure, Underdevelopment, Cold developing solution

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