1. Tempranillo: no. 1. Grown throughout N and Central. Thick skinned, M acid. Needs higher diurnal range as if not, looses acidity for balance. Best where altitude or sea influence.
2. Garnacha Tinta: Grenache. High alcohol, matures early. Important in Rosados wines (rosè) and in Priorat region where low-yield old vines enable complex, intense full bodied reds.
3. Monastrell: Mourvèdre.Thick skinned, drought tolerant but needs heat and sun to ripen. South east, such as Yecla and Jumilla where it can ripen and produce high tannin and all, L to M acid, v deep coloured, full body w ripe blackberry.
Graciano- highly valued, but challenging. Mainly grown in Rioja where it is used in top blends. Adds concentrated black fruit, acid, tannin.
Cariñena - Carignan. Called Mazuelo in Rioja. High in acid, tannin and colour. Good blend w Tempranillo. In Priorat it is blended w Garnacha to enhance tannin
Mencia- local variety, suits moderate climates. Fresh fruit, M to H acid, sometimes herbaceousness.