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Anatomy, Physioloy, and Pathology by Body Systems for the Massage therapist

Overview of Anatomy, Physiology, and Pathology
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Anatomy
The study of the structure of the body.
Physiology
The study of the functions of the body.
cytology
The microscopic study of the structure of cells.
Histology
The study of Tissue.
Developmental anatomy
The study of Structures from egg to adult form.
Embryology
The study of structures from the time of fertilization though the eighth week of gestation.
Gross anatomy
Refers to structures that can be studied without the aid of an microscope.
Pathological anatomy
The study of changes in the structures caused by disease.
Regional anatomy
The study of a specific region of the body.
Radiographic anatomy
The study of the body though x-rays.
Surface anatomy
The study of the body though observation and palpation.
Systemic anatomy
The study of specific body systems.
Neurophysiology
Study of nerves.
Cell physiology
The study of cell function.
Exercise physiology
The study of the acute responses and long-term adaptations of the body to physical activity or exercise.
Cell
The basic unit of life.
Tissue
Groups of similar cell combined.
Organ
A collection of tissues having a specific function.
Organ system
Organs acting together to perform specific functions.
Organism
A living thing made up of individual organ systems.
Abdominal cavity
Holds the digestive organs and the liver and spleen.
Abdominopelvic cavity
Describes both the Abdominal cavity below the diaphragm and the pelvic cavity.
Pelvic cavity
Holds the urinary bladder, the rectum, and the internal reproductive organs.
Thoracic cavity
Protected by the rib cage and contains the vital organs, such as the heart and lungs.
Pericardial cavity
A specific cavity within the thoracic cavity that protects the heart.
Ventral cavity
Describes the combined thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities.
Cranial cavity
Holds the brain, and the spinal cavity.
Spinal cavity
Holds the spinal cord.
Dorsal cavity
The interconnected cranial cavity and spinal cavity.
The 11 body systems of the human organism are?
Integumentary system, skeletal system, muscular system, nervous system, cardiovascular system, lymphatic system, respiratory system, digestive system, endocrine system,urinary system, and reproductive system.
Additional body systems of the human organism are?
Sensory system which is contained within several other systems and craniosacral system which is often referred to as a separate system, but it is actually part of the nervous system.
Integumentary system-Components are?
skin and associated structures such as hair, nails sweat glands and oil
Integumentary system-Functions are?
protects the body; helps regulate body temperature, waste elimination. production of vitamin D; detects sensations such as hot, cold, pain, etc.
Integumentary system-Effects of massage are?
Increases skin temperature, improves skin condition, stimulates oil glands, and improves pathological conditions.
Skeletal system-Components are?
Bones, joints and associated cartilage.
Skeletal system-Functions are?
Supports and protects the body; aids movements, houses cells that give rise to blood cells, stores minerals and fats.
Skeletal system-Effects of massage on connective tissue are?
Reduces keloid formation, reduces excessive scar formation, decreases adhesion formation, releases foscial restrictions, increases mineral retention in bone, promotes fracture healing, improves connective tissue healing, and reduces surface dimpling of cellulite.
Muscular system-Components are?
Skeletal muscle tissue, usually attached to bones.
Muscular system-functions are?
Produces body movements, stabilizes posture, produces body heat.
Muscular system-Effects of massage on the muscles are?
Relieves muscle tension, relaxes the muscles, reduces muscle soreness and fatigue, reduces trigger point formation, manually separates muscle fibers, increases range of motion, improves performance (balance and posture), lengthens muscles, increases flexibility, tones weak muscles, reduces creatine kinase activity in the blood, and decreases electromyography (EMG) readings.
Nervous system-Components are?
Brain, spinal cord, and nerves.
Nervous system-Functions are?
regulates body activities though nerve impulses by detecting changes in the body's internal and/or external environment and reacting by causing muscle contractions or glandular secretions.
Nervous system-Effects of massage are?
Reduces stress, promotes relaxation, decreases beta wave activity, increases delta wave activity, increases alpha waves, increases dopamine levels, increases serotonin levels, reduces cortisol levels, reduces norepinephrine levels, reduces epinephrine levels, reduces feelings of depression, decreases pain, reduces analgesic use, activates sensory receptors, and the hippocampal region of the brain develops faster and more elaborately.
Cardiovascular system-Components are?
Blood, heart, and blood vessels.
Cardiovascular system-Functions are?
Carries oxygen and nutrients to cells and carbon dioxide and other wastes away from from the cells; helps regulate acidity, temperature, and water content in bodily fluids; blood components aid immunity and repair of damaged blood vessels.
Cardiovascular system-Effects of massage are?
Dilates blood vessels, improves blood circulation, decreases blood pressure, creates hyperemia, stimulates release of acetylcholine and histamine, replenishes nutritive materials, promotes removal of waste products, reduces ischemia, reduces heart and pulse rates, increases stroke volume, increases red blood cell count, increases oxygen saturation in blood, increases white blood cell count, enhances the adhesion of migrating white blood cells, and increases platelet count.
Lymphatic system-Components are?
Lymphatic fluid and vessels; also structures that contain lymphocytes (white blood cells), such as spleen, lymph nodes, thymus gland, and tonsils.
Lymphatic system-Functions are?
protects against disease-causing organisms; returns proteins and other substances to the blood and cares lipids from GI tract to the blood.
Lymphatic system-Effects of massage are?
Promotes lymph circulation, reduces edema, decreases the circumference of an area effected with edema, decreases weight in patients with edema, increases lymphocyte count, and increases the number of function (or cytotoxicity) of natural killer cells, CD4 cells, and CD4/CD8 ratio.
Respiratory system-Components are?
Lungs and airways going into and out of the lungs.
Respiratory system-Functions are?
Transfers oxygen from inhaled air to the blood and carbon dioxide from the blood to exhaled air; helps regulates pH of the body fluids; allows vocal cords to produce sound through air flowing out of lungs.
Respiratory system-Effects of massage are?
Reduces respiration rate, strengthens respiratory muscles, decreases the sensation of dyspnea, decreases asthma attacks, reduces laryngeal tension, increases fluid discharge from the lungs, improves pulmonary functions.
Digestive system-Components are?
GI tract, starting at mouth and includes esophagus, stomach, intestines, and ends at anus; also includes organs that aid digestion, such as salivary glands, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder.
Digestive system-Functions are?
Absorption of nutrients by physical and chemical breakdown of food and elimination of waste.
Digestive system-Effects of massage are?
Promotes evacuation of the colon, relieves constipation, relieves colic and intestinal gas, and stimulates digestion.
Endocrine system-Components are?
Cells and glands that produce hormones: pancreas, thyroid, pituitary, adrenal, and pineal glands.
Endocrine system-Functions are?
Regulates body activities though release of hormones.
Endocrine system-Effects of massage are?
Increases dopamine levels, increases serotonin levels, reduces cortisol level, reduces norepinephrine level, reduces epinephrine level, and reduces feelings of depression.
Urinary system-Components are?
Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.
Urinary system-Functions are?
Produces, stores, and eliminates waste products though urine; regulates blood volume, composition, and mineral balance; aids in red blood cell production.
Urinary system-Effects of massage are?
Increases urine output, and promotes the excretion of nitrogen, inorganic phosphorus, and sodium chloride in urine.
Reproductive system-Components are?
Gonads (testes or ovaries) and associated organs; in females, uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina; in males, epididymis, ductus deferens, prostate gland, and penis.
Reproductive system-Functions are?
Produces gametes in gonads for reproduction; regulates reproduction and other processes though releases of hormones.
Reproductive system-Effects of massage are?
None
Frontal plane
Also known as the coronal plane it divides the body into anterior and posterior positions.
Sagittal plane
Divides the body into left and right section.
Midsagittal plane
Divides the body into equal left and right sections.
Transverse plane
Divides the body into upper and lower sections and is also called the horizontal plane.
Anatomical position
Standing erect, facing forward, arms at side, palms facing forward.
Anterior or ventral
Toward the front; in front of
Caudal or inferior
Toward the tail; lower
Cephalad or cranial or superior
Toward the head; upper
Deep
Far from the surface
Distal
Away from a point of reference; farthest from the trunk
Dorsal or posterior
Toward the back; in back of
Lateral
Away from the midline of the body.
Medial
Toward the midline of the body.
Proximal
Toward or nearest the trunk or point of reference
Superficial
Near the surface.
Pathology
The study of disease.
Anatomical pathology
The study of tissues removed from a dead or living person to diagnose disease or cause of death.
Clinical pathology
A number of subdisciplines that are often referred to as laboratory medicine: chemistry, histology, microbiology, and other specialties.
Pathophysiology
The study of how disease and trauma alter the normal functioning of the body.
Acute
Characterized by sudden onset
Aerobe
An organism that lives in an oxygen environment.
Ambulatory
Able to walk.
Anaerobe
An organism that lives in an oxygen-free environment.
Anaplasia
The irregular structural characteristics of a cell that identify it as a malignant cancer cell.
Anomaly
An abnormal occurrence, especially in reference to birth defects.
Antibiotic
A chemical substance derivable from a mold or bacterium that kills microorganisms and cures infection.
Antibody
A protein produced by the body as part of its defense against foreign bacteria or blood cells.
Antisepsis
The prevention of sepsis by excluding or destroying microorganisms.
Antiseptic
A substance that kills or prohibits the growth of microorganisms.
Asepsis
Free of germs.
Atrophy
A wasting away or decrease in size of a cell, tissue, organ, or part of the body caused by lack of nourishment, inactivity, or loss of nerve supply.
Autoimmunity
A situation in which the body produces an immune response against its own organs or tissues, causing severe inflammation and chronic conditions.
Bacteria
Microorganisms capable of reproduction; some strains cause infection and some are beneficial.
Benign
Referring to a tumor, or abnormal growth, that is not cancerous and does not invade nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body.
Chronic
Slow developing, recurring.
Degenerative
Characterized by diminishing capabilities.
Disease
An impairment of health that interferes with the body's ability to function normally.
Disinfect
The prevention of sepsis by excluding or destroying microorganisms.
Endemic
Characterizing a disease that exists in location or group of people all the time.
Etiology
The study of the cause and origin of disease.
Exacerbation
A marked increase in symptoms or severity of disease.
Fungus
A mold, yeast, or mushroom; some fungi are beneficial; some, such as ringworm, and athlete's foot, are not.
Hereditary
Genetically passed from parent to child.
Hyperplasia
An increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue.
Idiopathic
Of unknown origin.
Infection
The invasion and growth of microorganisms that may cause cellular injury in tissue.
Inflammation
A protective response from the body in response to infection or injury Characterized by swelling, heat, redness, and pain.
local
Affecting only one part.
Malignant
Cancerous; growth with a tendency to invade and destroy nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body.
Morbid
Diseased or sick.
Morbidity
Any departure, subjective or objective, from a state of physiological or psychological well-being.
Neoplasm
An abnormal growth of tissue that may be benign or malignant.
Pandemic
An epidemic that effects an expanded demographic area.
Pathogenesis
The origin and development of disease.
Signs
The evidence of disease as perceived by the doctor.
Sterilize
To destroy bacteria and other microorganisms.
Symptoms
The subjective evidence of disease as perceived by the patient.
Syndrome
A group of signs or symptoms characteristic of a particular disease or abnormal condition.
Systemic
Affecting the whole body.
Trauma
A physical injury or wound caused by an external force of violence , which may cause death or permanent disability. trauma is also used to describe severe emotional or psychological shock or distress.
Virulence
The ability of an organism to cause disease.
Virus
An intracellular parasite that causes disease.