The study of structures from the time of fertilization though the eighth week of gestation.
The study of the acute responses and long-term adaptations of the body to physical activity or exercise.
Describes both the Abdominal cavity below the diaphragm and the pelvic cavity.
Protected by the rib cage and contains the vital organs, such as the heart and lungs.
The 11 body systems of the human organism are?
Integumentary system, skeletal system, muscular system, nervous system, cardiovascular system, lymphatic system, respiratory system, digestive system, endocrine system,urinary system, and reproductive system.
Additional body systems of the human organism are?
Sensory system which is contained within several other systems and craniosacral system which is often referred to as a separate system, but it is actually part of the nervous system.
Integumentary system-Components are?
skin and associated structures such as hair, nails sweat glands and oil
Integumentary system-Functions are?
protects the body; helps regulate body temperature, waste elimination. production of vitamin D; detects sensations such as hot, cold, pain, etc.
Integumentary system-Effects of massage are?
Increases skin temperature, improves skin condition, stimulates oil glands, and improves pathological conditions.
Skeletal system-Functions are?
Supports and protects the body; aids movements, houses cells that give rise to blood cells, stores minerals and fats.
Skeletal system-Effects of massage on connective tissue are?
Reduces keloid formation, reduces excessive scar formation, decreases adhesion formation, releases foscial restrictions, increases mineral retention in bone, promotes fracture healing, improves connective tissue healing, and reduces surface dimpling of cellulite.
Muscular system-Effects of massage on the muscles are?
Relieves muscle tension, relaxes the muscles, reduces muscle soreness and fatigue, reduces trigger point formation, manually separates muscle fibers, increases range of motion, improves performance (balance and posture), lengthens muscles, increases flexibility, tones weak muscles, reduces creatine kinase activity in the blood, and decreases electromyography (EMG) readings.
Nervous system-Functions are?
regulates body activities though nerve impulses by detecting changes in the body's internal and/or external environment and reacting by causing muscle contractions or glandular secretions.
Nervous system-Effects of massage are?
Reduces stress, promotes relaxation, decreases beta wave activity, increases delta wave activity, increases alpha waves, increases dopamine levels, increases serotonin levels, reduces cortisol levels, reduces norepinephrine levels, reduces epinephrine levels, reduces feelings of depression, decreases pain, reduces analgesic use, activates sensory receptors, and the hippocampal region of the brain develops faster and more elaborately.
Cardiovascular system-Functions are?
Carries oxygen and nutrients to cells and carbon dioxide and other wastes away from from the cells; helps regulate acidity, temperature, and water content in bodily fluids; blood components aid immunity and repair of damaged blood vessels.
Cardiovascular system-Effects of massage are?
Dilates blood vessels, improves blood circulation, decreases blood pressure, creates hyperemia, stimulates release of acetylcholine and histamine, replenishes nutritive materials, promotes removal of waste products, reduces ischemia, reduces heart and pulse rates, increases stroke volume, increases red blood cell count, increases oxygen saturation in blood, increases white blood cell count, enhances the adhesion of migrating white blood cells, and increases platelet count.
Lymphatic system-Components are?
Lymphatic fluid and vessels; also structures that contain lymphocytes (white blood cells), such as spleen, lymph nodes, thymus gland, and tonsils.
Lymphatic system-Functions are?
protects against disease-causing organisms; returns proteins and other substances to the blood and cares lipids from GI tract to the blood.
Lymphatic system-Effects of massage are?
Promotes lymph circulation, reduces edema, decreases the circumference of an area effected with edema, decreases weight in patients with edema, increases lymphocyte count, and increases the number of function (or cytotoxicity) of natural killer cells, CD4 cells, and CD4/CD8 ratio.
Respiratory system-Functions are?
Transfers oxygen from inhaled air to the blood and carbon dioxide from the blood to exhaled air; helps regulates pH of the body fluids; allows vocal cords to produce sound through air flowing out of lungs.
Respiratory system-Effects of massage are?
Reduces respiration rate, strengthens respiratory muscles, decreases the sensation of dyspnea, decreases asthma attacks, reduces laryngeal tension, increases fluid discharge from the lungs, improves pulmonary functions.
Digestive system-Components are?
GI tract, starting at mouth and includes esophagus, stomach, intestines, and ends at anus; also includes organs that aid digestion, such as salivary glands, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder.
Digestive system-Functions are?
Absorption of nutrients by physical and chemical breakdown of food and elimination of waste.
Digestive system-Effects of massage are?
Promotes evacuation of the colon, relieves constipation, relieves colic and intestinal gas, and stimulates digestion.
Endocrine system-Components are?
Cells and glands that produce hormones: pancreas, thyroid, pituitary, adrenal, and pineal glands.
Endocrine system-Effects of massage are?
Increases dopamine levels, increases serotonin levels, reduces cortisol level, reduces norepinephrine level, reduces epinephrine level, and reduces feelings of depression.
Urinary system-Functions are?
Produces, stores, and eliminates waste products though urine; regulates blood volume, composition, and mineral balance; aids in red blood cell production.
Urinary system-Effects of massage are?
Increases urine output, and promotes the excretion of nitrogen, inorganic phosphorus, and sodium chloride in urine.
Reproductive system-Components are?
Gonads (testes or ovaries) and associated organs; in females, uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina; in males, epididymis, ductus deferens, prostate gland, and penis.
Reproductive system-Functions are?
Produces gametes in gonads for reproduction; regulates reproduction and other processes though releases of hormones.
Also known as the coronal plane it divides the body into anterior and posterior positions.
Divides the body into upper and lower sections and is also called the horizontal plane.
The study of tissues removed from a dead or living person to diagnose disease or cause of death.
A number of subdisciplines that are often referred to as laboratory medicine: chemistry, histology, microbiology, and other specialties.
The irregular structural characteristics of a cell that identify it as a malignant cancer cell.
A chemical substance derivable from a mold or bacterium that kills microorganisms and cures infection.
A protein produced by the body as part of its defense against foreign bacteria or blood cells.
A wasting away or decrease in size of a cell, tissue, organ, or part of the body caused by lack of nourishment, inactivity, or loss of nerve supply.
A situation in which the body produces an immune response against its own organs or tissues, causing severe inflammation and chronic conditions.
Microorganisms capable of reproduction; some strains cause infection and some are beneficial.
Referring to a tumor, or abnormal growth, that is not cancerous and does not invade nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body.
A mold, yeast, or mushroom; some fungi are beneficial; some, such as ringworm, and athlete's foot, are not.
A protective response from the body in response to infection or injury Characterized by swelling, heat, redness, and pain.
Cancerous; growth with a tendency to invade and destroy nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body.
Any departure, subjective or objective, from a state of physiological or psychological well-being.
A physical injury or wound caused by an external force of violence , which may cause death or permanent disability. trauma is also used to describe severe emotional or psychological shock or distress.