Booker T. Washington
A former slave. Encouraged blacks to keep to themselves and focus on the daily tasks of survival, rather than leading a grand uprising. Believed that building a strong economic base was more critical at that time than planning an uprising or fighting for equal rights. Washington also stated in his famous "Atlanta Compromise" speech in 1895 that blacks had to accept segregation in the short term as they focused on economic gain to achieve political equality in the future. Served as important role models for later leaders of the civil rights movement.
W.E.B. Du Bois
One of Washington's harshest critics, believing that Washington's pacifist plan would only perpetuate the second-class-citizen mindset. He felt that immediate "ceaseless agitation" was the only way to truly attain equal rights. As editor of the black publication "The Crisis," he publicized his disdain for Washington and was instrumental in the creation of the "Niagara Movement," which later became the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People). He eventually grew weary of the slow pace of racial equality in the United States and renounced his citizenship and moved to Ghana in 1961, where he died two years later. Served as important role models for later leaders of the civil rights movement.
With the loss of the Confederate government, southern residents turned to these local leaders. They were known both for their efforts to "redeem" the South from being dominated by Yankees, as well as their redemption of the South from a one-crop society. They believed strongly that a laissez-faire federal government would be more productive than the militarily enforced Reconstruction. Their opponents said that this group just intended to repress blacks at the expense of whites and to increase their political power.
U.S. political party formed in 1892 representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other monopolies. In need of new members, they brought many blacks into their group, occasionally even giving them prominent leadership positions, stirring up the Redeemers who wanted to repress the northern influence of equality for former slaves.
Jim Crow laws
Segregation laws. Limited the rights of blacks. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights. "Separate but equal." Segregation of blacks and whites became common as long as each had "equal" facilities. Although blacks and whites might both have facilities that served the same purpose, such as public restrooms, railroad cars, and theater seats, the facilities were rarely equal.
Plessy v. Ferguson
Homer Plessy was a man with one-eighth black ancestry who was ordered to leave the whites-only railroad car. He refused the order and was arrested and convicted. He appealed the case all the way to the Supreme court, Court validated Plessy's conviction, and the southern states took that as a green light to enact segregation laws on a wide scale, and racial violence increased drastically.
"Atlanta Compromise" speech
A speech given by Booker T. Washington in 1895. Proposed that blacks and whites should agree to benefit from each other,
a vast prairie region extending from Alberta and Saskatchewan and Manitoba in Canada south through the west central United States into Texas
Benjamin "Pap" Singleton
Leader of African American pioneers who moved west to the Great Plains after the Civil War.
The place where the Centra Pacific and Union Pacific met. California governor Leland Stanford drove a final golden spike into the railway to signify the completion of the first transcontinental railroad.
Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA)
The federal government established this in 1836 to be in charge of the relocated Indians. Corruption among agents was common, however. This flawed federal aid program furthered the Indians' resentment toward white society and created an atmosphere of conflict.
Dawes Severalty Act
It was an attempt to assimilate the Indians with the white men. Dissolved many tribes as legal entities, wiped out tribal ownership of land, and set up individual Indian family heads with 160 free acres. If the Indians behaved like "good white settlers" then they would get full title to their holdings as well as citizenship.
United States military leader. He was called to lead troops to move the Sioux away from the area the miners sought to excavate. He was defeated in 1877 at Little Bighorn in the Sioux War.
In 1877, General Custer decided to take on the Sioux, Cheyenne, and Arapaho army of 7000 with his 264 men. Even though he realized the U.S. forces were largely outnumbered, he believed that the element of surprise would work to his advantage. However, before the attack could commence, him and his men found themselves surrounded by an Indian sneak attack led by famed war Chief Crazy Horse. In a two-hour battle, Crazy Horse's 2,500 warriors massacred Custer and his 264 men.
Homestead Act of 1862
Allowed a settler to acquire as much as 160 acres of land by living on it for 5 years, improving it, and paying a fee of about $30. Led half a million families to buy land and settle out West Turned out to be really bad because 160 acres was rarely enough for a family to earn a living and survive, and the land usually had terrible soil and there was no rain. Many had to give their land back to the government before the 5 years were over..
Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages. Long periods of drought and destructive farming methods ruined farming in the region.
Bred heftier, blooded stock and fenced them into controlled ranges where they could be fed, watered, and protected. Herds were restricted in size to avoid overgrazing the dry prairie. Cattle raising became a regular business
In 1889 U.S. government opened up Oklahoma to give away land. These settlers took illegally snuck in and possession of land before the government officially declared it open and tried to make sure they could stake out their claims before others. Most were forcibly evicted by federal troops.
Frederick Jackson Turner
United States historian who stressed the role of the western frontier in American history. Wrote "The Significance of the Frontier in American History," one of the most influential essays written in America. Claimed that American history had been a study of expansion and settlement of a succession of "Wests," and that prolonged frontier experience had affected the thinking of the American people. With loss of the frontier, Americans lost a critical foundation for their culture, and an era had ended with unforeseen abruptness and startling finality. Because of the impact of his writing, efforts were made to preserve some of the virgin land in the form of protected national parks.