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138 terms

Protista

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Algae systematics
Polyphyletic
Algae energy obtained from
Photosynthesis (exhibit some degree of heterotrophy)
Algae habitat
Aquatic
Algae cellular complexity
Mostly eukaryotic
Algae prokaryotic example
Cyanobacteria
Algae morphology range
Wide
Algae primary production precent
50-75 precent
Algae ecology
Phytoplankton, periphyton, terrestrial
Euglenophyta time
Silurian
Euglenophyta spp
900
Euglenophyta environment
Mostly freshwater
Euglenophyta fossil record quality
Sparce
Euglenophyta fraction without pigments
2/3
Euglenophyta fraction with pigments
1/3
Euglenophyta pigment types
Chlorophyll a, b, carotenoids
Euglenophyta number of flagella
2
Euglenophyta flagella types
Emergent or reduced, equal or unequal
Euglenophyta cell wall
No cell wall
Euglenophyta proteinaceous strips
Made of Fe or Mn
Euglenophyta eye spot
Present
Euglenophyta vacuole type
Contractile
Euglenophyta sexual reproduction
Unknown
Rhodophyta common name
Red algae
Rhodophyta time
Late Precambrian (1.25 bya)
Rhodophyta fossil record quality
Excellent (CaCO3)
Rhodophyta spp
4000-6000
Rhodophyta environment
Primarily marine (tropical), some freshwater
Rhodophyta extreme enviroments
Hot, acidic springs
Rhodophyta storage
Floridean starch (glycogen)
Rhodophyta motile stage
No motile stage
Rhodophyta resistant stage
No resistant stage
Rhodophyta cell wall composition
Cellulose, CaCO3
Rhodophyta important connections
Pit connections
Rhodophyta cellularity
Mostly multicellular
Rhodophyta asexual reproduction
Monospores
Rhodophyta sexual reproduction
Complicated, some gametic life cycle, mostly triphasic life cycle
Rhodophyta sexual reproduction stages
Gametophyte (n), carposporophyte and tertrasporophyte (2n)
Rhodophyta economic importance
Porphyra (genus, Nori), agar, carrageenan
Dinophyta formerly
Pyrophyta, fire algae
Dinophyta fossil record
Precambrian, Silurian
Dinophyta alveolates
Share a system of sacs underneath their cell membranes (alveoli)
Dinophyta alveolates relationships
Closely related to Foraminifera, Ciliata, and Apicomplexa
Dinophyta spp
2000-4000
Dinophyta environment
Mostly marine, some freshwater
Dinophyta pigments
Either none or chlorophyll a, c, and carotenoids
Dinophyta storage
Starch
Dinophyta flagella
Either none or 2 dissimilar
Dinophyta complexity
Unicellular
Dinophyta cellulose plates
Aid in flotation, theca
Dinophyta reproduction
Asexual
Dinophyta life cycles
Bizarre, often in excess of 18 stages, resting cyst is hystrichosphere
Dinophyta symbiotic relationships
Reefs
Dinophyta red tides neurotoxins
Saxitoxin, brevitoxin
Dinophyta red tides
Summer, eutrophication, bloom of dinoflagellates, density is 20 million per liter
Heterokontophyta flagella
Different
Heterokontophyta flagella characteristics
Long, distinctive hairs; short, smooth whiplash
Heterokontophyta 4 groups types
1 heterotrophic, 3 photosynthetic
Oomycota common name
Water molds
Oomycota fossil record quality
Sparse
Oomycota time
Cretaceous
Oomycota origin
Fungus-like heterokonts diverged early = primitive
Oomycota spp
700
Oomycota enviroments
Marine, freshwater, terrestrial (water required)
Oomycota storage
Glycogen
Oomycota cell wall
Cellulose
Oomycota flagella
Heterokont, zoospores (asexual), male gametes
Oomycota somatic vegetative body (2n)
Mycelium, aseptate
Oomycota asexual reproduction
Zoosporangium (2n) and zoospore (2n, encysted)
Oomycota gamete type
Oogamous
Oomycota life cycle
Gametic life cycle
Oomycota female gametangium
Oogonium
Oomycota male structure
Antheridium
Bacillariophyta common name
Diatoms
Bacillariophyta time
Cretaceous
Bacillariophyta spp
100000 - 250000
Bacillariophyta distribution
Cosmopolitan
Bacillariophyta pigments
None or chlorophyll a, c, carotenoids (fucoxanthin)
Bacillariophyta storage
Chrysolamarin
Bacillariophyta flagella
Heterokont
Bacillariophyta flagella gamete
Male
Bacillariophyta cell wall
Silica
Bacillariophyta cell wall structure
2 overlapping valves, collectively called frustule, decorated
Bacillariophyta morphology
Unicellular or colonial
Bacillariophyta pennates
Bilateral symmetry, unique motility
Bacillariophyta centrics
Radial symmetry, phytoplankton
Bacillariophyta dominant reproduction type
Asexual
Bacillariophyta sexual reproduction
Initiated by sperm or auxospore (resistant stage)
Bacillariophyta auxospore
Resistant stage
Bacillariophyta life cycle
Gametic life cycle
Chrysophyta common name
Golden algae
Chrysophyta time
Cretaceous
Chrysophyta spp
1000
Chrysophyta pigments
None or chlorophyll a, c, carotenoids (fucoxanthine)
Chrysophyta energy type
Heterotrophic, ingest bacteria
Chrysophyta storage
Chrysolamararin
Chrysophyta cell wall
None or silica scales
Chrysophyta morphology
Unicellular or colonies
Chrysophyta asexual reproduction
Prevalent; zoospores
Chrysophyta sexual reproduction
Only in a few species
Chrysophyta resting cycts
Sexual or asexual, silica
Chrysophyta brown tides
Marine, toxic
Phaeophyta common name
Brown algae
Phaeophyta time
Ordovician
Phaeophyta spp
1500
Phaeophyta environment
Mostly marine, temperate, boreal, polar waters
Phaeophyta pigments
None or chlorophyll a, c, and carotenoids (fucoxanthin)
Phaeophyta storage
Laminarin and manitol
Phaeophyta cell wall
Cellulose with mucilaginous algin
Phaeophyta morphology
Large, multicellular organisms with high level of differenciation; holdfast, stipe, air bladders, sieve tubes
Phaeophyta life history
Must have had a sporic life cycle, alternation of generations, few have gametic life cycle
Phaeophyta economic importance
Kelps, algin, alginates
Chlorophyta common name
Green algae
Chlorophyta systematics
Paraphyletic
Chlorophyta time
Cambrian
Chlorophyta spp
17000
Chlorophyta environment
Marine, freshwater, terrestrial
Chlorophyta relationships
Closest to land plants
Chlorophyta synapomorphies with plants
Pigments, storage, cellulose cell wall, flagella ultrastructure
Chlorophyta pigments
Chlorophyll a, b, carotenoids
Chlorophyta thylakoids
Stacked
Chlorophyta storage
Starch inside plastids
Chlorophyta 3 classes
Chlorophyceae, ulvophyceae, and charophyceae
Chlorophyta Chlorophyceae cytokinesis
Phycoplast
Chlorophyta Chlorophyceae environment
Mostly freshwater
Chlorophyta Chlorophyceae morphology
Unicellular and colonial
Chlorophyta Chlorophyceae reproduction
Asexual
Chlorophyta Chlorophyceae life cycle
Zygotic life cycle
Chlorophyta Chlorophyceae dominant stage
Haploid
Chlorophyta Chlorophyceae characteristic
Eyespot, zygospore
Chlorophyta Ulvophyceae environment
Mostly marine
Chlorophyta Ulvophyceae reproduction
Only asexual
Chlorophyta Charophyceae environment
Freshwater
Chlorophyta Charophyceae relationship
Closest to plants (basal appendage)
Chlorophyta Charophyceae synapomorphies with plants
Asymmetric flagella, phargmoplasts, breakdown of nuclear envelope, sporopollenin
Chlorophyta Charophyceae morphology
Unicellular, colonies, filamentous, parenchamous
Chlorophyta Charophyceae sexual reproduction
Conjunction tubes
Chlorophyta Charophyceae life cycle
Zygotic life cycle (not same as plants, haploid thallus)
Chlorophyta Charophyceae reproduction
Sexual