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World War 1

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Causes of World War 1
Militarism- building of a military, army= pride, ability, power, defense, stockpile of weapons
Alliance Systems- fear and jealousy led to alliances, aid if attacked (Triple Alliance and Triple Entente)
Imperialism- competition, jealousy, self-sufficiency
Nationalism- devotion to one's nation, desire for freedom and self determination
Triple Entente
1. Great Britain
2. France
3. Russia (and Serbia had an alliance with Russia)
*Japan, Italy, U.S, Australia
Triple Alliance
1. Austria-Hungary
2. Germany
3. Italy
*Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire (they wanted to try and regain territory)
Tension among countries
-France is still angry about the Franco-Prussian war
-German pride in military
-Slavic nations want freedom... Serbia
Timeline of events
-The Archduke Ferdinand and his wife are assassinated by the Black Hands of Serbia.
-Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia
-Russia mobilizes to aid Serbia
-The German government declared war on Russia
-Germany declared war on France
-Great Britain declared war on Germany
Schlieffen Plan: Germany is ready to attack
1. Attack France
2. Leave troops in Paris
3. Quickly attack Russia
*This plan needed speed!
Bloody Stalemate
New weapons and tactics create a stalemate and very high casualty rates
-Trench Warfare
-Poison gas
-tanks
-airplanes
-machine guns
-submarines/ U-boats
This creates the Western Front (the battle zone stretching from N. France to the Swiss Alps)
Trench Warfare
Goal: Slowly wear down the opposing force
Miserable conditions like:
-little to no sleep
-infested with rats (often would eat them)
-sit in water which caused trench foot, Gangrene, and Dysentery
-boredom
-constant shelling led to shell shock which is similar to PTSD
Eastern Front
Along the German and Russian border
Russia struggles:
-Lots of casualties and little supplies
-huge army= formidable force which keeps Germany from sending troops to the Western Front
-German problem: 2 front war
What were the reasons for the growing hostility between Austria-Hungary and Serbia?
Nationalism caused Serbia to want to absorb all Slavs on the Balkan Peninsula. Russia supported this but Austria-Hungary felt that it would stir up rebellion among it's Slavic population. When Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbs pledged to take them back and Austria- Hungary vowed to crush any Serbians who do so. Then, when Archduke Ferdinand from Austria-Hungary was assassinated by Serbian men, they used it as an excuse to punish them.
Why might Serbia have stakes a claim to Bosnia and Herzegovina?
They were right next to each other and Bosnia and Herzegovina are bordered by the Adriatic Sea which would be great for trade and sea transportation in the Mediterranean Sea. Also, both were highly populated with Slavs.
What single event set in motion the start of World War 1?
The assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
In which country was almost all of the war in the West fought?
France
What geographic disadvantage did Germany and Austria-Hungary have in fighting the war? How might that have affected their war strategy?
The two countries were stuck between France and Russia so they had to fight a two front war.
Why was the Battle of Marne so significant?
The Battle of Marne left the "great Schlieffen plan" shattered because Russian troops had already invaded Germany in the East and Germany wouldn't be able to react quick enough in the West.
Why was Russia's involvement in the war so important to the Allies?
Germany was in between France and Russia so it had to divide it's army to fight both wars at once. Also, Russia had a great number of people so it's army never died out.
What were characteristics of trench warfare?
Armies dug trenches to protect against enemy fire. Many people died and there was little progress. The trenches had no fresh food and were infested with rats so they ended up eating rats. There was also a lot of standing water/ mud so they ended up with trench foot and gangrene. When soldiers tried to come out, they were usually met with machine fire. However, if they stayed, they could be hit with rounds
How were the wars on the Eastern and Western fronts the same?
Many people died and technology just increased the number of casualties.
How were the wars on the Eastern and Western fronts different?
-The Eastern front was more mobile
-The Western front used more trench warfare
-France and Great Britain were fighting Germany on the Western front
-Russia and Serbia were fighting Austria-Hungary on the Eastern front
-The Western was mainly in France and the Eastern in Russia
Which countries were aligned with European Allies?
-Australia
-Japan
-India supplied troops because they were allies with Britain
-New Zealand
-United States
Outside of Europe, where was World War 1 fought?
-Asia
-Africa
-Pacific Islands
How did the governments of warring nations fight a total war?
The governments were dedicated to winning the conflict so they took control of the economy. The governments used resources to produce war supplies like ammunition and all people were put to work. Women replaced men in the local workforce.
How was the second Battle of Marne similar to the first?
The Central Powers once again crumbled under the Allied force.
What role did women play in the war?
Women replaced men in many of the city style jobs like working in factories, offices, and shops. They supplied the troops with the goods to sustain them in war, from food to clothing. Many also aided the injured as nurses.
What factors helped prompt the United States to join the war for the Allies?
-Germany sunk the Lusitania which killed 128 people
-Germany encouraged Mexico to help them fight against the United States
-The U.S' economic ties were stronger with the Allies than the Central Powers.
-America's similarities to Britain created a bond.
What complaints did various mandated countries voice about the Treaty of Versailles?
Throughout Asia and Africa in the mandated territories, people were angry that the Allied Powers disregarded their desire to independence.
In what ways did the Treaty of Versailles punish Germany?
-Germany had to return Alsace- Loraine to France and surrender overseas colonies
-Military can't be too big, can't import weapons or build submarines
-Placed sole responsibility on their shoulders and they were forced to pay $33 billion to Allied Powers. Because their economy was war based, they had trouble paying off this debt.
What two provinces were returned to France as a result of the treaty?
Alsace-Loraine
What was the goal of Wilson's fourteen points?
To achieve a just and lasting peace, and prevent future German aggression.
What was the "war guilt clause" in the Treaty of Versailles?
It placed sole responsibility for the war on Germany and said that they must pay back the allies for the war expenses.
Were the Versailles treaties fair?
No because it placed sole blame for WW1 on Germany. Austria-Hungary was also a key player of the Central Powers and it can be argued that it was the Serb's fault for assassinating Archduke Ferdinand which set the war in motion. Also, Russia was left out of the Big Four despite their valiant war efforts with the Allied Powers (they even lost land), Finally, the nations controlled by the Germans previously had new rulers and all they wanted was independence.
Why did the United States reject the Treaty of Versailles?
The people were not happy with the League of Nations and felt that the U.S' best hope for peace was to stay out of European affairs.
Militarism
The policy of glorifying military power and keeping an army prepared for war
Triple Alliance
Formed between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy in the years preceding World War 1.
Kaiser Wilhelm 2
The ruler of Germany who forced Bismarck to resign so he could hold all power. He let his treaty with Russia lapse and began to build ships which alarmed other European countries.
Triple Entente
a military alliance between Great Britain, France, and Russia in the years preceding World War 1.
Central Powers
Germany and Austria-Hungary ( named because of location in the heart of Europe); Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire later joined.
Allies
Also known as the Allied Powers, included Great Britain, France, Russia, Japan, Australia, the United States, Italy.
Western Front
the deadlocked region in northern France
Schlieffen Plan
Germany's plan to attack and defeat France in the west and then rush east to fight Russia because they were faced with a war on two fronts.
Trench warfare
A form of warfare in which opposing armies fight each other from trenches built in the battlefields.
Eastern Front
In World War 1, the region along the German-Russian border where Russians and Serbs battled Germans, Austrians, and Turks.
Unrestricted submarine warfare
the German policy that their submarines would sink without warning any ships in the waters around Britain.
Total war
A conflict in which the participating countries devote all their resources to the war effort.
Rationing
the limiting of the amounts of goods people can buy- often imposed by governments during wartime when goods are in short supply.
Propaganda
information or material spread to advance a cause or damage an opponent's cause.
Armistice
an agreement to stop fighting
Woodrow Wilson
The president of the United States who was a key member of the peace plan for post WW1 world.
George Clemenceau
France's leader and a member of the Big Four. He was instrumental in the signing of the Treaty of Versailles.
Fourteen Points
the plan proposed by President Wilson towards the end of WW1 that outlined how to achieve a just and lasting peace
Self determination
the idea that people should be allowed to decide for themselves under what government they wished to live.
Treaty of Versailles
the agreement between Germany and the allied powers that punished Germany and placed the sole blame on their shoulders. Germany's territories were declared mandates that would be controlled by the Allies temporarily
League of Nations
An international association whose goal was to keep peace among the nations; created by the Treaty of Versailles.
The Gallipoli Campaign
-Allies move to capture Ottoman Dardanelles strait
-Hope to defeat Ottoman Empire, a Central Power ally
-Also want to open a supply line through region to Russia
-Effort ends in costly Allied defeat
Battles in Africa and Asia
-Allies take control of German holdings in Asia and Africa
-Britain and France use their colonial subjects to help in war effort (Indians under British Raj are forced to fight)
The Americans Join the Fight
1. Germany seeks to control Atlantic Ocean to stop supplies to Britain
2. Uses unrestricted submarine warfare- ships near Britain are sunk without warning
3. Germany halts policy in 1915, after sinking of Lusitania angers U.S because 128 Americans were killed.
4. Germany renews unrestricted policy in 1917, hopes to starve Britain quickly
5. Renewal of policy and effort to enlist Mexico through the Zimmerman note angers the U.S
6. U.S declares war against Germany in April 1917, joining the Allies
Command economy
governments take control of the economy to produce war goods
Rationing
Nations turn to rationing- limiting purchases of war-related goods such as food, steel, sugar, tin, rubber, etc.
Women and the War
-At home, thousands of women fill jobs previously held by men
-Many women also experience the war by working as nurses
Russia withdraws
-civil unrest in Russia forces Czar to step down from the throne in 1917
-communists soon take control of Russia's government
-Russia signs treaty of Brest- Litvosk in March 1918, pulls out of war
The Central Powers collapse
-With Russia gone, Germany moves most of its force to Western front
-engage in major fighting; Allies force Germans to retreat
-Allies win war; armistice- end of fighting- signed in November 1918
High Price of War
-war takes heavy toll; 8.5 million soldiers dead; 21 million wounded
-war devastates Europe's economies and drains natural resources
-many acres of land and homes, villages, towns, destroyed
-survivors suffer disillusionment and despair. This is reflected in the arts.
Key leaders in the Big Four
United States: Woodrow Wilson
France: George Clemenceau
Italy: Vittorio Orlando
Great Britain: David Lloyd George
Wilson's plan for peace
1. Wilson proposes Fourteen points- outline for lasting world peace
2. promotes self-determination-right of people to govern themselves
3. calls for free trade and end to secret alliances, and military buildups
4. envisions international peace keeping body to settle world disputes (14th point)
The Treaty of Versailles
-The Allies and Germany sign accord- the Treaty of Versailles in June 1919
-creates League of Nations- international peace keeping organization
-blamed Germans for war, forces Germany to pay damages to nations; known as the War Guilt Clause
-League to rule German colonies until deemed ready for independence which loses money
The Creation of New Nations
-Versailles treaty and other peace accords change the look of Europe and parts of the middle- East
-Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and the Ottoman empire lose land
-Former Ottoman empire lands in southwest Asia turn into mandates and will eventually be split up
-New countries created in southeastern Europe
-Russia is forced to give up land
The seed for future conflicts are sewn
-Treaty of Versailles creates feelings of bitterness on both sides, which will eventually lead into another world conflict- World War 2
-German people feel bitter and betrayed after taking blame for the war
-America never signs Treaty of Versailles
-Some former colonies express anger over not winning independence (Ho Chi Minh)
-Japan and Italy criticize agreement; they gain less land than they wanted
Who were the Central Powers and the Allies? How did they form?
Central powers- Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire
Allies- France, Great Britain, Italy, Russia, United States, Japan, Italy, Australia,
-When Austria declared war, Russia, Serbia's ally began moving it's army towards the Russian-Austrian border. Germany declared war on Russia and then France, Russia's ally. Great Britain declared war on Germany and then Germany drug the United States into the war so they were on the Allies' side.
What is the significance of MAIN?
MAIN includes the 4 forces that drove the world war into occurring. Militarism left Europe's Great Powers with large standing armies that were easily able to defend their country by mobilization. Alliance systems that had been previously decided by Bismarck after the Franco-Prussian war began to change. The Triple Alliance had been made up of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy to make France weaker but Wilhelm let his treaty with Russia lapse which encouraged the Triple Entente to form (Russia, France, and Great Britain). In the Balkans, nationalism caused the many ethnic groups to desire independence. Serbia wanted to absorb all the Slavs on the Balkan peninsula but Austria-Hungary did not want this. So when Austria Hungary imperialized and took over Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbs were outraged.
Who was responsible for the assassination of the Archduke Frantz Ferdinand?
A secret Serbian society called the Black Hands
What were the goals of Bismarck's Germany?
To create peace by taking away France's land and create an alliance that they weren't a part of.
What is the powder keg of Europe?
The Balkans are the powder keg of Europe because that is where the conflict between the Serbs and Austrians began. This later led to the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand by the Black Hands
What is the Schlieffen Plan? What countries are involved?
The Schlieffen Plan is the plan developed by Germany when forced to fight in a two front war. The plan called for attacking and defeating France in the west and rushing East to fight Russia. The countries involved from the Central Powers side were mainly Germany and Austria-Hungary. Russia and France were the countries being directly attacked.
What was trench warfare and how did it impact how the war was fought on the eastern and western fronts?
Trench warfare is a type of warfare in which soldiers fought each other from trenches. This led to huge losses of human life in return for only small land gains. A stalemate occurred and the soldiers were left in bad conditions of rat infested and water filled trenches. Many suffered from Trench foot or Gangrene, and boredom.
What were the three key events that led the U.S to join the war?
1. German unrestricted submarine warfare 2. Sinking of the British Lusitania which killed 128 Americans 3. Britain intercepted the Zimmerman note which was Germany's plan for Mexico to attack the United States
What is total war?
Total war is when a government devotes all of it's resources to the war effort. Governments take control of the economy by telling factories what to produce and ration so the soldiers have adequate supplies. Information is censored and one-sided and any able bodied person is working.
What was the main goal of the Gallipoli Campaign performed by the Allies?
The Allies' strategy was to attack the Dardanelles in the Ottoman Empire which would allow them to take Constantinople and defeat the Turks, establishing a supply line to Russia.
What is the impact of the Brest- Litovosk?
When Russia became a communist country, their leader Lenin ended Russia's involvement in the war with a treaty called the Treaty of Brest- Litovosk. This allowed Germany to send all of its force towards France and the Western front. France at first seemed crushed
Explain the Zimmerman note
The Zimmerman note is a telegram written by Germany's foreign secretary Arthur Zimmerman stating that if Mexico became their ally, then Germany would help them to regain territory that the U.S took.
How was rationing and propaganda used in total war?
Rationing was used in total war because the government only allowed civilians to a small amount of items that were needed for war. That became the priority. Propaganda was also used to persuade the people to continue supporting the war because they only saw the positive side of it.
Which countries represented the Big Four? Why were some nations excluded?
Italy, France, Great Britain, and the United States made up the Big Four. ANSWER SECOND PART OF QUESTION
What was the War Guilt Clause and how did this impact the aftermath of WW1?
The War Guilt Clause was the part of the Treaty of Versailles that placed sole responsibility for the war on Germany's shoulders. They had to pay war reparations to the Allies because of this. The War Guilt Clause left the Germans bitter because their economy was military based so they couldn't pay back the reparations
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