APES Spring Final
Terms in this set (60)
Explain why a sea otter is a keystone species.
It is a keystone species because they feed on sea urchins to control their populations.
What are common ways to deal with the side effects of eutrophication?
Some common ways are:
-applying herbicides to kill nuisance plants dredging out
-lakes to deepen them
-pumping oxygen into the lowest layers of water
-introducing insects that eat certain nuisance plants
What are control groups used for?
As a benchmark to measure how the other test subjects do.
What is a risk we face when using biological controls?
We face the risk of harming non-target species.
Why are phytoplankton found in the upper hundred feet of most bodies of water?
Because they can use the light that penetrates the water in order to go through photosynthesis
Why do small isolated islands have a greater rate of species extinction than larger, less isolated
Because they have a limited amount of resources and if they run out, they species will die out.
Give an example of a non point source of pollution
Fertilizer from agricultural lands/residental areas.
What is the current recommendation of Congress for the permanent storage of high-level radioactive
waste in the US?
burial deep underground at sites remote from population centers.
What is a major limitation of using photovoltaic cells to generate electricity?
A limitation is there is no sunshine at night to charge the photovoltaic cells.
What costs are not included in the electricity bills that consumers, who get their electricity from coal-
fired power plants, pay?
bills do not include public health costs, such as those associated with air pollution
When fracking, what is the purpose of pumping highly pressurized water with a mixture of sand and
chemicals into boreholes?
create cracks within the rock in order to provide pathways for the release of gas and oil
Where is the Ogallala Aquifer located? What is happening to it?
underlies the United States High Plains and is being depleted by overuse
How might herbicides affect amphibians?
herbicides act as endocrine disruptors
How might total fertility rate be affected as a society goes through demographic transition?
As women become more educated, more contraceptives become available, and access to family planning increases, the TFR decreases.
What occurrence in the environment might result in the increase of skin cancer rates?
ozone depletion in the stratosphere
How might increased temperatures in the Arctic affect:
• mosquito populations and caribou? • melting permafrost and methane?
• ice and travel distance for ships?
• Arctic species and extinction?
• melting permafrost and travel for vehicles transporting oil drilling equipment?
• sea levels and arable land area?
-the amount of mosquitoes will increases
-more melting of permafrost and releases of methane gas
-less ice and travel distance will decrease
-increased rate of extinction and less arctic biodiversity
-increases melting of permafrost and more ships
-sea levels will rise and less land area
Explain the pesticide treadmill.
Farmers spray pesticides; target species becomes resistant to pesticide; farmer buys a new, more expensive pesticide; farmer utilizes pesticide and the treadmill continues.
Increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations over the next 50 years will result in what global changes?
significant loss of biodiversity in the tropics.
Create a positive feedback loop with the following information: increasing ice melts, ocean surface
As the increase in atmospheric CO2 increases air temperature, it promotes the thawing of the permafrost which contains large quantities of CO2 from the bacterial decomposition of previously frozen vegetation and animal life. Briefly, any increase in atmospheric CO2 leads to an increase in temperature which leads to further increase in temperature due increase release of CO2 from the thawing permafrost
Give an example of a carbon sink.
The atmospheric concentration of CO2 increased from 278 ppm in 1790 to 383 ppm in 2007. What is
the approximate percent increase in CO2 concentration from 1790 to 2007?
Give an example of the Tragedy of Commons.
If a pond is open for fishing to the public, and the public overuses the pond, the amount of fish will significantly decreases.
What is a commercially used method for harvesting trees and is most likely to lead to a fragmented
landscape with serious impacts on biodiversity?
What property of crude oil is used in refineries to separate oil into its various components?
Between 1960 and 1970, why did oil consumption approximately doubled?
The number of cars on the road increased.
What processes does the Sun's radiation provide energy for?
plant growth, ocean currents, hurricanes, cloud formation
What are the direct products of the use of hydrocarbon fuels in automobile engines?
CO2, NOx, VOCs
Even though DDT is banned in the US, why would a test of the body tissue of a resident in the US
reveal presence of DDT?
Because of miomaginifcation, it comes from animals, plants, or fruits and vegetables that we eat that come from outside of the country.
Create a diagram demonstrating thermal inversions.
Give an example of a negative externality.
illnesses related to living near a manufacturing facility noise associated with living near a major airport
air pollution caused by refinery emissions
damage to crops from automobile exhaust
Why might the spread of infectious disease increase as climate change increases?
Because as temperature increases, more mosquitoes are able to carry diseases and spread them.
Diagram the most likely route for mercury to enter the food web.
coal burning emissions —> deposition —> ocean —> plankton —> fishes
Why might increase in housing developments impact the local water supply?
Because there is an increase in the number of people, more people will deplete the local water supply.
Why might vegetarianism be a partial solution to the growing problems of deforestation and other
types of habitat destruction as the human population grows?
Because no tress or habitats will be destroyed to make ranches for cows and vegetarians will not eat meat.
What element might be a limiting factor for primary production in freshwater lakes?
What factors contribute to smog formation in the Los Angeles basin?
Burning of fossil fuels, emissions of GHGs from cars, and heat.
Why might eutrophication result in the death of trout and other fish?
toxic pH levels in the water
asphyxiation from lack of oxygen
A country has an estimated annual growth rate of 2%. How many years will it take this country to
70/2 = 35 years
What factors might promote fertility above replacement level?
Less developed country, lack of family planning/contraceptives, less opportunities for women, more religious conflicts and limitations, and public housing priority for families with more than two children
What does surface ocean circulation most directly result in?
Rotation of cool and warm water.
Describe a stable age distribution.
Equal amount of members in each category: pre-reproductive, reproductive, and Post-reproductive.
When a substance magnifies in a food chain, increasing with the level of the food chain.
What soil horizon has the greatest concentration of organic material?
What country has the largest proven coal reserves?
What is a negative human effect associated with particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5
high rates of respiratory disease from power plant emissions
What is a potential human effect associated with thermal inversion?
increase in respiratory irritation due to increased levels of fine airborne particulates
When a substance within an organism increases over time and the organism continues to take in that substance.
How might nitrogen-based fertilizers in the Midwest affect the Gulf of Mexico?
hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico
Increases gases in what part of that atmosphere contribute to global climate change?
What type of radiation contribute to global climate change?
stratosphere absorb outgoing IR Radiation
Red pine trees are currently found growing in only the cool northernmost areas of the central and
eastern United States. Climate change is expected to have an impact on the distribution of the species.
What do you think might happen to the population of red pine trees over the next 200 years?
Red pine distribution will shift northward toward into Canada
In August of 2014, residents of several Ohio cities that use Lake Erie as a drinking water source were
warned not to drink tap water because of the presence of toxins released by blue-green algae (cyanobacteria). What would be the most likely cause of recent blooms of blue-green algae in Lake Erie?
Runoff from phosphoric fertilizers from agricultural lands.
List the correct order of soil particles in order of increasing size?
Clay, sand, silt, and gravel.
Even though open oceans produce the largest share of Earth's biomass (high GPP), why is its net
primary productivity (NPP) still low?
Because it has a great total area.
What produced a majority of atmospheric mercury?
The burning of coal.
How would increased urban development effect the rates of the following processes?
• Groundwater recharge
-decrease of evaporation and transpiration because of the smog in the air and blocking of buildings.
-less because of implementation of asphalt.
Describe a positive feedback mechanism associated with global climate change?
The more ice melts, more permafrost melts.
What environmental problems are associated with fracking?
Contamination of groundwater.
How does burning fossil fuels contribute to the net increase in atmospheric carbon?
The burning of fossil fuels release CO2 into the atmosphere.
What agricultural practice contributes to the development of dangerous strains of disease organisms?
Incorporating antibiotics into the feeding regimes of densely concentrated livestock