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Genetics Murray Biology
Terms in this set (44)
Father of genetics
The study of heredity
Male and female reproductive cells join
Produce offspring identical to themselves
A specific characteristics such as seed color or plant height.
The offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
Chemical factors that determine a trait
Different forms of a gene
Organisims that have two identical alleles for the same trait.
Organisms that have two different allels for the same trait.
When both alleles in a heterozygous individual will "mix" together like paint
When a heterozygous individual will have BOTH traits shown at the same time, but they DO NOT mix to make a third phenotype.
Are usually done to see if children could get a genetic disorder. Most genetic disorders are recessive.
Multiple Alleles (blood type)
This is when there are more than 2 alleles that control a trait, but only 1 gene controls that trait.
This is when more than one gene controls a trait. Each gene is contributed equally.
Can affect polygenic inheritance more genes controlling one trait means that you have more genes to be influenced by outside factors.
There are some traitd om the sex chromosomes that are influenced by gender.
A disorder on the x chromosome. It's a blood disorder where blood doesn't clot properly.
Dihybrid punnet square
This is usefull for crossing TWO traits at the same time.
Heterotype x Heterotype ratio (Dihybrid)
9:3:3:1 adds up to 16
Makes another phenotype and mixes like paint
When a scientist take a picture of you chromosomes during mitosis and line up your chromosomes according to size.
Chromosomes numbered 1-22. These do not code for your gender.
Dihybrid genotype ratio
A-B- , A-bb , aaB- , aabb
Process that produces gametes and makes 4 haploid cells
Makes 2 diploid cdlls
Pairs of chromosomes
When chromatids are sorted into their gametes separate from each other
Genes that are very close together on a chromosome
Are on different chromosomes or much farther apart, and will separate during independent assortment.
Deletion, duplication, insertion, translocation, inversions
Where part of a chromosome is deleted
Where part of a chromosome is duplicated
When a copy of part of a chromosome is onto another chromosome
Where part of a chromosome switches places with another part of a different chromosome.
When part of the chromosome flips around
Abnormal amounts of chromosomes, usually caused by entire chromosomal duplications or deletions
Switches genes on and off and affect how cells read genes instead of bein caused by changes in the DNA sequence
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