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chemical components of DNA

DNA is a nucleic acid made up of nucleotides joined into long strands or chains by covalent bonds

nucleic acid

make up protein, long slightly acidic molecules originally identified in cell nuclei


building blocks of nucleic acids

nucleotides that make up DNA

each nucleotide contains a deoxyribose molecule, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen-containing base

the nitrogen containing bases

Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Thymine

Nitrogenous bases

another word for the bases in DNA that contain nitrogen

How are the nucleotides in a strand of DNA joined?

covalent bonds formed between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate group of the next

UV light and nitrogenous bases

the bases have a chemical structure that is exceptionally good at absorbing UV light (why we get tan)

Order & sequence of nucleotides

sequence of a strand does not matter but A always matches up with T and G always matches up with C

scientists responsible for discovering the structure of DNA

Erwin Chargaff, Rosalind Franklin, James Watson, and Francis Crick

Chargaff's Rule

the observation that A = T and G=C

What did Franklin's x-rays discover?

x-shape pattern hinted that the strand in DNA are in the double-helix shape

What did Watson and Crick discover?

worked on figuring out the structure of DNA, built 3D models, saw Franklins x-rays, breakthrough model of the double-helix in DNA

What does the double-helix model tell us about DNA?

explains Chargaff's rule of base pairing and how two strands of DNA are held together

double helix model

What does DNA stand for?

deoxyribose nucleic acid

What does it mean for DNA to be antiparallel?

runs in opposite directions

What bonds the 2 strands of DNA together


base pairing

the nearly perfect fit between A-T and G-C nucleotides

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