WGU C272- Foundational Perspectives of Education
Terms in this set (124)
Foundations of Education
The psychological, historical, philosophical, and sociological aspects of the field of education that are considered essential to the professional knowledge of all teachers.
Social Development Theory-
Social interaction among children plays a major role in cognitive development
Six Stages of Development and Growth-
Children must master specific developmental tasks to develop normally.
Four Stages of Development-
Created theory of cognitive development, believed that children learn from facts, concepts, and principles in four major stages- Sensorimotor, Pre-operational, Concrete Operations, & Formal Operations
Three Modes of Representation-
Believes children encounter a series of developmental stages as they mature
Author of Taxonomy of Educational Objectives-
Predict learning outcomes by assessing 3 factors
Improved vocational training for African Americans
Booker T. Washington
African American educator who contributed immensely to the development of education in the United States- Influence on African American Students
Casa Dei Bambini-
Developed theory and methods of educating young children
Ella Flagg Young
First female superintendent for Chicago Public Schools-
First female president of the National Education Association
essentialism, behaviorism, positivism
progressivism, humanism, constructivism
-core information that educated people should know
-hard work and mental discpline
-teacher centered instruction
-draws from idealism and realism
-focus mainly on developing basic skills, not truths
Essentialism- In the classroom
-purpose of education is to transmit culture and develop citizens
-student is a learner, teacher instructs in essentials
-curriculum focuses on subject matter and content
-methods include: required reading, lectures, memorization, repetition, examinations, step by step directions
-B.F. Skinner is the father.
-Behavior determined by environment not heredity
-Behavior response to external stimuli
-behaviorism related to realism, link to environment
Behaviorism-In the classroom
-Teacher influences student behavior by controlling stimuli
-school environment is highly organized
-curriculum based on behavioral objectives
-knowledge is observable, a reward system is often utilized
-Focus on observable, measurable information
-reject beliefs about mind-spirit consciousness
-reality explained by laws of matter and motion
-knowledge based on sense of perceptions
Positivism- In the classroom
-Direct instruction, clear structured directions and expectations
-knowledge gained through empirical observation
-students assessed using same objective criteria
-content standards based on expert understandings
-ideas verified through experiment, learners initiate questions
-human experience basis for knowledge, not authority
-privileges scientific method of teaching, learning
-emphasis on how to think (process) not what to think (content)
Progressivism- In the classroom
-Schools must improve society, model democracy
-schools must model meaningful, organized freedom
-freedom expressed thought student-teacher collaboration
-texts become tools, not indisputable knowledge
-Henry Giroux schools as vehicles for change
-teachers should practice critical pedagogy
-education should enhance innate goodness
-schools objective is the student
-education should start with the individual self
-education should develop free, self-actualizing person
Humanism- In the classroom
-curriculum is found in the environment, not subject matter
-positive student-teacher relationships crucial for learning
-individualized instruction, open access curriculum, non graded instruction, multi-age grouping
-free schools, storefront schools, schools without walls,
-humanistic programs usually more costly
-developing personal meaning through hands-on activity
-students provided opportunity to construct meaning through critical thinking and big ideas
-freedom to infer and discover own answers
-teaching involves a variety of learning activities
constructivism- in the classroom
-problem based learning
-teachers invite students to experience, proposes situations
-students encouraged to ask questions, seek own answers
-Dutch renaissance Humanist, Catholic priest, social critic, teacher and theologist
-he was a classical scholar who wrote in pure Latin style
-he was one of the most famous educators and formed the humanistic theory of education
-Laid the foundation for modern education based on the recognition that children have unique needs and capabilities
-his contributions include the establishment of the first kindergarten
-he believed that women are best suited to teach young children
-viewed a young child's mind as a blank slate (Tabula Rasa) on which an education could be imprinted
-He believed that teachers needed to create a non-threatening learning environment- a rather revolutionary idea at the time
-believed that "knowledge is virtue" and this principle has been adopted by many educators
-he is famous for creating the socratic method of teaching- a way of teaching that centers on the use of questions by the teacher to lead students to a certain conclusion
education that was delivered in the homes of women, usually consisting of the basics of reading and writing
Latin Grammar School
Early schools that followed a classical curriculum consisting mainly of Latin and Latin-texts and some Greek
English Schools (academies)
schools that followed a practical curriculum rather than a classical curriculum focused solely on Latin and Latin readings
Common School Movement
the movement that provided universal education and schools that would serve all children at public expense
schooling that was designed to prepare students for life in the world of work, with an emphasis on conformity, following directions, rote learning and memorization, and strict rules of comportment
English Only Rule
Rule barring Mexican American children from speaking Spanish in public schools
Eight Year Study
A study in the period of the 1930's that compared the progressive approach to education with the traditional approach and found that the progressive approach produced more intellectual curiosity and drive and higher levels of critical thinking and judgement
a philosophy of education based on the assumption that students should learn the basic facts regarding the social and physical world
a philosophy of education developed by John Dewey based on the assumption that all learning is active, that learning is intellectual, social, and emotional, and that curriculum should begin with the child's interests and experiences
a philosophical orientation based on the assumption that all learning should be focused on unchanging principles or great ideas
a philosophy of education based on the belief that schools should aim to foster active participants in society through a study of social problems and an aim to create a more just society
Ethic of care
a philosophy of education based on the commitment to caring
this bill provides for the education of veterans
The national defense education act provided federal money to improve the science, math, engineering, and language problems in schools (1958)
Provides freedom of speech, religion, and of the press
grants each state the power to provide for public education
ensures equal educational opportunity
these are policies and procedures designed to compensate for past discrimination against women and members of minority groups
a civil rights act that addresses 3 areas- equal treatment, appropriate education, and people with disabilities
public law 94-142
aka the education for all handicapped children act (EAHCA)- first passed by congress in 1975, has been amended over the years into today's individuals with disabilities education act (IDEA)
response to intervention- a multi-tiered approach to the early identification and support of students with learning and behavioral needs
1st tier- Whole group instruction
2nd tier- small group instruction
3rd tier- one-on-one instruction
Department of education
Government agency- created to help states establish effective school systems. Today, the department of education operates programs that touch on every area and level of education
National Science Foundation
Government agency- created to "promote the progress of science, to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare.; to secure the national defense and for other purposes
Bureau of Indian affairs (BIA)
Government agency- manages and finances many of the schools on Native American reservations
Department of Defense (DOD)
Government agency- responsible for the Military Academy at West Point, the Naval Academy at Annapolis, the Coast Guard Academy at New London, and the Air Force Academy at Colorado Springs. The DOD also operates a school system (Department of Defense Education Activity- DODEA) for the children of military staff wherever members are stationed.
Department of the Interior
Government agency- has the educational responsibility for children of national park employees; for SOMOA (classified as an outlying possession) and for the trust territories of the Pacific, such as Caroline and Marshall Islands. The Department of the Interior oversees the Bureau of Indian Affairs
Regional education laboratories
the federal government funds a set of ten regional education laboratories, which provide curriculum development, technical assistance, and evaluation services to school districts and states.
National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE)
non-goverment agency- grants professional accreditation in teacher education to the school, college, or department of education that is responsible for preparing teachers and other educators.
Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC)
non-government agency- offers accreditation to teacher education programs. TEAC is newer than NCATE and is also dedicated to helping improve degree programs for professional educators
Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC)
non-government agency- created a set of 10 standards that describe what teachers should know and be able to do
National Education Association (NEA)
non-government agency- teacher union, by far the largest teacher's organization. They are committed to advancing public education and improving working conditions. They also provide resources to teachers such as handbooks on a variety of topics
America Federation of Teachers (AFT)
non-government agency- the second largest teacher's union. They have stressed that organized labor was an important force in establishing our system of free public schools and that it has actively supported school improvement programs
non-government agency- grants accreditation on a university's financial status, student services, and general studies curriculum. There are 6 regional agencies that are named based on the general region they are in.
Standards Based Education
the use of explicit outcomes of what students should know and be able to do, which are outlined in standards, to develop instruction and assessments
and acronym referring to the academic discipline of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Many people are worried that not enough high tech professionals are being produced by high schools. STEM education was created to meet these needs in the four disciplines
Framework for 21st Century Learning
for today's students to master the basic core subjects and develop global awareness. Global awareness includes civic, health, financial, economic, business, and entrepreneurial literacy
Outcomes of "A Nation at Risk"
-stronger admission standards for higher education
-Stronger standards for academic achievement
-Prepare students for global economy
-prepare qualified math and science teachers
federally funded program for 3-5 year olds from low-income families to provide educational services and emotional, social, health, nutritional, and psychological support that will prepare them to enter kindergarten
educational program originally designed for 3-6 year olds that is well organized into subject-based work centers where children interact with the classroom materials
-includes little or no large group instructions
-uses uninteruppted extended work period so students can explore their environment
-mastery of observable skills is recorded by their teacher
Based on the belief that children are active learners and on the child development theories of Jean Piaget
-lessons are designed to relate to student's lives and environments
-uses developmental checklists
-students design portfolios to showcase their work
Reggio Emilia Approach
ensures children, families, teachers, and entire community take on an active role in the education of each child
-project based curriculum built on student interests
English language learner is a student who is limited english proficient
Strategies for ELL
1- incorporate language objectives in lessons
2- give students more time on tests
3- incorporate cognitive strategies
4- incorporate social strategies
5- treat ELL students the same as other students. Do not discriminate against the ELL students in your classroom.
separate and relatively self-contained educational interventions designed to meet the academic and transitional needs of students new to american schools
Sheltered English instruction
an instructional approach used to make instruction in English understandable to ELL students in sheltered classrooms, teachers use physical activities, visual aids, and the environment to teach vocabulary for concept development in subjects
Structured English Immersion Program
this program is designed so that the ELL student can succeed in an English-only mainstream classroom. All instruction in an immersion strategy program is in English. Teachers have specialized training in meeting the needs of ELL students
this program places ELL students in a regular English-only classroom with little or no support services based on the theory that they will pick up English naturally
Opportunity to Learn Standards
means that ELL students have to be provided with appropriate accommodations to support their learning as outlined in the standards
remove students from mainstream classrooms for a portion of the day in order to give them specialized instruction in English
an educational program that provides instruction in English and a second language
an educational strategy that uses English and the native language of students in classroom instruction
content based English as a second language
is designed to provide second language learners instruction in content and language
Which key education philosopher believed social interaction plays a major role in cognitive development?
A teacher believes in hands-on, activity-based learning. Therefore, most of his assignments for his first-grade class focus on problem solving and using manipulatives.
Which student-centered approach to learning is this teacher using?
Which historical figure believed that focusing solely on vocational education would improve the plight of African Americans?
How did Horace Mann influence the development of common elementary schools?
He kept educational issues before the public.
Which foundational educator whose method of asking a series of questions to lead students to certain conclusions is still used today?
Which philosophical practice of Socrates can be seen in the contemporary classroom?
Teachers ask a series of questions.
Which federal statute influenced contemporary education and includes the themes of equal treatment, appropriate education, and people with disabilities?
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
A teacher who joined the National Education Association (NEA) has had a difficult time understanding the relationship between the assessment process and the Common Core State Standards.
How can NEA serve as a resource to help solve this dilemma?
The teacher can download NEA handbooks on a variety of topics.
What is a current concern if all states adopt the Common Core State Standards?
States will be required to use the same standardized test.
Which government agency is responsible for overseeing the education of Native American students on reservations through the Bureau of Indian Affairs?
Department of the Interior
Which non-government entity developed 10 standards to describe what beginning teachers should know and be able to do?
Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (InTASC)
How did the National Defense Education Act impact contemporary education?
High-school students must take science, math, and foreign language classes to meet graduation requirements.
What was a direct outcome of the A Nation at Risk report?
The federal government challenged schools to prepare students for a global economy.
Which school option provides students with a themed curriculum such as performing and visual arts or math and science?
Which tuition-free option to public school was designed to meet the need for advanced studies and credit recovery as well as serve students unable to attend school for social reasons?
An early childhood teacher now works at a Montessori pre-school, and she is deciding which assessment practices to use with students. Last year, she applied the High Scope model at the school where she previously taught.
What should the teacher consider about each program when making her decision?
Montessori teachers record mastery of observable skills; High Scope teachers create a portfolio with student work examples and use developmental checklists to assess growth.
A student who is only interested in music is having a hard time focusing in social studies class.
What is an effective way for the teacher to try to engage this student?
Develop a course project in which students compare contemporary and historical lyrics
A teacher is going to lead a field trip and wants some of her students' parents to be chaperones. She wrote an article for the school newsletter asking for chaperones, but she did not receive a sufficient response.
Which direct method should the teacher use to follow up?
Send an email and a note to the parents requesting their assistance as chaperones
A fifth-grade teacher wants students to celebrate the diverse cultures represented in the classroom. The teacher decides to have a cultural awareness program in which each student brings family pictures and stories to share from grandparents about what life was like for them when they were ten-years-old.
Which type of cultural awareness is the teacher promoting?
A middle-school counselor has several LGBTQ students assigned to her caseload next year.
What should the counselor consider when developing strategies and programming to effectively support these individuals?
LGBTQ individuals comprise the largest population of homeless youth.
Which two types of family structure are more common in contemporary society than 60 years ago?
Choose 2 answers
-Children living in single-parent households
-Mothers working while fathers stay at home with the children
A teacher hears a colleague make derogatory comments that stereotype a particular ethnic student group.
What is the colleague demonstrating in this instance?
The teacher has a class that includes five beginning English language learners (ELLs). The teacher is preparing a unit test and wants to provide appropriate support so the ELLs can demonstrate understanding of the content.
Which type of support can the teacher provide to meet this goal?
Allow additional time for students to complete the test
Which domestic issue is addressed when a charitable agency provides extra school supplies for each classroom?
Which approach can help prevent sexual harassment from affecting students' academic achievement?
Allow students to anonymously report an incident
A local middle school is in the process of hiring a new teacher. Three candidates were interviewed, the candidate to be hired selected, and the final recommendation was sent to the school board.
Who typically sends this recommendation?
First-grade teachers want to institute a Read-to-Dogs program to support struggling readers.
Which school official should they first contact with this proposal?
Due to a school's low performance, a principal is concerned that the state department of education may require restructuring of the school.
Which function of the state department of education addresses this issue?
What is the major source of funding for public school operations?
Which principle within the U.S. Constitution has been strengthened by affirmative action statutes and court cases as related to public education?
Which question addresses equity in the financing of public education?
Does each school across the state have the same amount of funding?
A public school district is paying for transportation for students attending a high-performing private school.
How is this justified under the Child Benefit Theory?
The transportation benefits the students rather than the school.
Which level of privacy can teachers expect regarding the use of their school e-mail?
The e-mail system and its content are owned by the district, so it can be viewed by school administrators at any time.
During a school assembly, Matthew Fraser, a high school senior, gave a short speech using sexual innuendos to nominate his friend for a student government position. School administrators stopped the speech and suspended him for two days. The student argued that his First Amendment rights were violated.
What did the U.S. Supreme Court rule in this case?
The school board determines what manner of speech is inappropriate in the classroom or school assembly.
Which law ensures that all students with disabilities are guaranteed a free and appropriate public education?
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
A teacher works in a district whose administration strongly supports bring your own device for research in the classroom. A student who is a habitually slow worker and barely maintains a passing average is the fourth student finished with the research assignment. When the teacher grades the assignment, he finds that the student has made 100%.
Which action demonstrates the teacher's responsibility in this instance?
Monitor the devices while students are working on assignments
Which type of laws impact educators through the U.S. Department of Education?
How does the concept of "value added" relate to teacher evaluation?
It connects teacher effort with increased test scores.
What are two characteristics that apply to the educational standards of all states?
Choose 2 answers
-States are required to use a set of standards.
-States may choose to adopt the Common Core State Standards.
What are two purposes of standards-based education?
Choose 2 answers
-To describe outcomes of student learning
-To evaluate the performance of teachers and principals
A charter school principal asked teachers to determine the standards and skills in which their students need in-depth and rigorous learning at their grade level.
Once the teachers aligned the grade-level standards, they set out to redesign their curriculum. Their redesign work focused on student performance on real tasks with multiple forms of evidence of learning.
Which type of school reform has the principal implemented to meet these new standards?
What was an intention for developing the Common Core State Standards?
To focus on the expectations for student learning
What is a frequently expressed concern about the Common Core State Standards?
Standards will expand until they become a required national curriculum.
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