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112 terms

ANTH 101 MidTerm v3

Only Quizzes and Fall '12 Midterm and Chapters 6 and 7 key terms
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phonemes
the minimal sound contrasts that distinguish meaning in a language
pit/bit
a minimal pair in Standard American English
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
argues that the language people speak influence the way they think
diglossia
regular shifting between "high" and "low" variants of a language
kinesics
the study of communication through body movements, stances, gestures, and expressions
syntax
the arrangement and order of words in phrases and sentences
morphology
the study of the forms in which sounds combine to form words and their meaningful parts
linguistic displacement
the ability to talk about things that are not present
focal vocabulary
the specialized set of terms and distinctions that are particularly important to certain groups
sociolinguists
they study speech in its social context
Noam Chomsky
linguist that argued that all human languages have a common structural basis and that all humans have similar linguistic abilities
BEV
most professional linguists regard this as a dialect of English; it is not a distinct language
women
tend to use language to build social connections with others
lexicon
all of a language's morphemes and their meanings
linguists
they believe that the world's linguistic diversity has been cut in half over the past 500 years
daughter languages
languages that have descended from the same ancestral language
phonology
the study of sounds used in speech
creole languages
after being spoken for generations, pidgins may develop into these; commonly found in regions where different linguistic groups came into contact with one another
mutation in the FOXP2 gene
the genetic difference that has been found between humans and chimpanzees that is likely responsible for the human capability for speech
egalitarian
a society that lacks status distinctions except those based on age, gender, and individual qualities, talents, and achievements
Southern Mesopotamia
where writing first developed in the Middle East
H. sapiens sapiens
the first hominin to arrive in the New World
Neolithic
the name given to the cultural period in which the first signs of domestication are present
Mesopotamia
the term for the area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in what is today Iraq and southwestern Iran
sedentism
life in permanent settlements
chiefdom
a ranked society in which villages have lost their autonomy; the precursors to primary states
10,000 B.P.
in the Near East, when did the domestication of plants and animals begin to replace foraging as the basis of subsistence
metallurgy
knowledge of the properties of metals, including how to extract, process, and use them to make tools
gene flow
the transmission of genetic material between populations
phenotype
what natural selection acts on
Mendelian genetics
studies the ways in which chromosomes transmit genes across generations
variation
natural selection cannot work without this
homologies
used as a basis for assigning organisms to the same taxon (zoological category)
great apes
gorillas, chimpanzees, and orangutans
Miocene
when the first hominoids appeared
Cenozoic
the era that anthropologists are most interested in
longitudinal ethnographic research
the long-term study of a particular culture or society, frequently based on repeated visits
primatologists
study primates in both zoos and natural settings
paleopathology
the study of disease and injury in skeletons from archaeological sites
historical archaeologists
use written records to supplement the archaeological record
sampling
the collection of a representative subset of a larger population
AAACE (American Anthropological Association's Code of Ethics)
designed to ensure that all anthropologists are aware of their obligations to the field of anthropology, the host communities that allow them to conduct their research, and to society in general
anthropometry
the measurement of human body parts and dimensions
ethnographer
kind of researcher that has traditionally studied small, non-Western populations
stratigraphy
not an absolute dating technique
participant observation
taking part in the events one is witnessing and describing
longitudinal research
the study of an area or population over time
genealogical method
technique developed specifically because kinship and marriage relationships are so important in nonindustrial societies
key cultural consultant
an expert on a particular aspect of local life
ethnography
the firsthand, personal study of local settings
biocultural perspective
allows the inclusion of both biological and cultural approaches to comment or solve particular issue or problem
ethnology
the comparative, generalizing aspect of cultural anthropology
four main sub disciplines of anthropology
biological anthropology, linguistic anthropology, cultural anthropology, and archaeology anthropology
material remains
what anthropological archaeologists study
paleoecology
the study of interactions among past living things in a past environment
adaptation
term for the process by which organisms cope with environmental forces and stresses
science
a systematic field of study that uses experiment, observation, and deduction to produce reliable explanations of phenomena
biocultural perspective
the inclusion of both biological and cultural approaches
paleoanthropologist
a scientist who studies the fossil record of human evolution
sociolinguistics
the study of the relationships between social and linguistic variation
applied anthropology
the use of anthropological findings, concepts, and methods to accomplish a desired end
cultural anthropologist
an anthropologist studying ethnic-religious conflict in contemporary Sri Lanka
enculturation
process by which children learn culture
practice theory
anthropological approach that focuses on how people with different motives, intentions, and degrees of power and influence manage to create and transform the society in which they live
symbol
a sign that has no necessary or natural connection to the thing it stands for or signifies
cultural relativism
the argument that behavior in a particular culture should not be judged by the standards of another culture
cultural universal
some kind of family
ethnocentrism
viewing another culture in terms of your own culture and values
cultural particulars
features unique to a given culture, not shared with any others
cultural generality
nuclear family
direct diffusion
the kind of diffusion that takes place when two cultures trade, intermarry, or wage war on one another
acculturation
cultural change that results when two or more cultures have continuous firsthand contact
globalization
processes that are causing nations and people to be increasingly interlinked and mutually dependent
independent invention
the process by which humans innovate, creatively finding solutions to problems; the emergence of agriculture in at least seven different regions of the world is an example of this
ideal culture
what people say they do or should do (as opposed to what they actually do)
subcultures
the different symbol-based patterns and traditions associated with particular groups within the same complex society
all people
what kinds of people do anthropologists consider to be "cultured"
acculturation
mechanism of cultural change that is responsible for pidgin English
ethnography
the firsthand, personal study of local settings
adaptation
the processes by which organisms cope with environmental forces and stresses
sociolingustics
the study of the relationships between social and linguistic variation
cultural relativism
the argument that behavior in a particular culture should not be judge by the standards of another culture
ethnocentrism
viewing another culture in terms of your own culture and values
gene pool
all of the genetic material in a breeding population
state
kind of society is divided into social classes
natural selection
operates when there is competition for strategic resources
state
the name of a form of social and political organization that has a formal, central government and a division of society into classes
H. sapiens sapiens
hominin group that colonized the Americas
broad-spectrum revolution
the period when glacial retreats led to the exploitation of a greater variety of plant and animal foods
Paleolithic
"Old Stone Age"
H. erectus
the first hominin species to expand its range outside of Africa
A. afarenis
early form of australopithecus, found in ethiopia at Hadar ("Lucy") and in Tanzania at Laetoli; dating to the period between 3.8 and 3.0 m.y.a
australopithecines
varied group of Pliocene-Pleistoncene hominids; the term is derived from their former classification as members of a distinct subfamily, the Australopithecinae; now they are distinguished from Homo only at the genus level
bipedalism
upright two-legged locomotion, the key feature differentiating early hominins from the apes
gracile
opposite of robust
hominid
a member of the taxonomic family that includes humans and the African apes and their immediate ancestors
hominin
a member of the human lineage after its split from ancestral chimps; used to describe all the human species that ever have existed, including the extinct ones, but excluding chimps and gorillas
Homo habilis
term coined by L.S.B. and Mary Leakey; ancestor or contemporary of H. erectus; lived from about 1.9 to 1.44 m.y.a
Oldowan pebble tools
earliest (2.0 to 2.5 m.y.a.) stone tools; first discovered in 1931 by L.S.B. and Mary Leakey at Olduvai Gorge
robust
large, strong, sturdy; said of skull, skeleton, muscle, and teeth; opposite of gracile
Acheulian
derived from the French village of St. Acheul, where these tools were first identified; Lower Paleolithic tool tradition associated with H. erectus
anatomically modern humans (AMHs)
including the Cro-Magnons of Europe (31,000 B.P.) and the older fossils from Skhul (100,000) and Qafzeh (92,000); continue through the present
archaic H. sapiens
early H. sapiens, consisting of the Neandertals of Europe and the Middle East, the Neandertal-like hominins of Africa and Asia, and the immediate ancestors of all these hominids; lived from about 300,000 to 30,000 B.P.
blade tools
the basic Upper Paleolithic tool type, hammered off a prepared core
Clovis tradition
stone technology based on a projectile point that was fastened to the end of a hunting spear; it flourished between 12,000 and 11,000 B.P. in North America
glacials
the four or five major advances of continental ice sheets in northern Europe and North America
interglacials
extended warm periods between such major glacials as Riss and Wurm
Mousterian
Middle Paleolithictool-making tradition associated with Neandertals
Neandertals
H. sapiens neanderthalensis, representing an archaic H. sapiens subspecies, lived in Europe and the Middle East between 130,000 and 30,000 B.P.
Paleolithic
Old Stone Age; divided into Lower (early), Middle, and Upper (late)
Pleistocene
epoch of Homo's appearance and evolution; began 2 million years ago; divided into Lower, Middle, and Upper
Upper Paleolithic
blade-toolmaking traditions associated with AMHs; named from their location in upper, or more recent, layers of sedimentary deposits