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the specialized set of terms and distinctions that are particularly important to certain groups
linguist that argued that all human languages have a common structural basis and that all humans have similar linguistic abilities
they believe that the world's linguistic diversity has been cut in half over the past 500 years
after being spoken for generations, pidgins may develop into these; commonly found in regions where different linguistic groups came into contact with one another
mutation in the FOXP2 gene
the genetic difference that has been found between humans and chimpanzees that is likely responsible for the human capability for speech
a society that lacks status distinctions except those based on age, gender, and individual qualities, talents, and achievements
the name given to the cultural period in which the first signs of domestication are present
the term for the area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in what is today Iraq and southwestern Iran
a ranked society in which villages have lost their autonomy; the precursors to primary states
in the Near East, when did the domestication of plants and animals begin to replace foraging as the basis of subsistence
knowledge of the properties of metals, including how to extract, process, and use them to make tools
longitudinal ethnographic research
the long-term study of a particular culture or society, frequently based on repeated visits
AAACE (American Anthropological Association's Code of Ethics)
designed to ensure that all anthropologists are aware of their obligations to the field of anthropology, the host communities that allow them to conduct their research, and to society in general
technique developed specifically because kinship and marriage relationships are so important in nonindustrial societies
allows the inclusion of both biological and cultural approaches to comment or solve particular issue or problem
four main sub disciplines of anthropology
biological anthropology, linguistic anthropology, cultural anthropology, and archaeology anthropology
a systematic field of study that uses experiment, observation, and deduction to produce reliable explanations of phenomena
the use of anthropological findings, concepts, and methods to accomplish a desired end
an anthropologist studying ethnic-religious conflict in contemporary Sri Lanka
anthropological approach that focuses on how people with different motives, intentions, and degrees of power and influence manage to create and transform the society in which they live
the argument that behavior in a particular culture should not be judged by the standards of another culture
the kind of diffusion that takes place when two cultures trade, intermarry, or wage war on one another
cultural change that results when two or more cultures have continuous firsthand contact
processes that are causing nations and people to be increasingly interlinked and mutually dependent
the process by which humans innovate, creatively finding solutions to problems; the emergence of agriculture in at least seven different regions of the world is an example of this
the different symbol-based patterns and traditions associated with particular groups within the same complex society
the argument that behavior in a particular culture should not be judge by the standards of another culture
the name of a form of social and political organization that has a formal, central government and a division of society into classes
the period when glacial retreats led to the exploitation of a greater variety of plant and animal foods
early form of australopithecus, found in ethiopia at Hadar ("Lucy") and in Tanzania at Laetoli; dating to the period between 3.8 and 3.0 m.y.a
varied group of Pliocene-Pleistoncene hominids; the term is derived from their former classification as members of a distinct subfamily, the Australopithecinae; now they are distinguished from Homo only at the genus level
upright two-legged locomotion, the key feature differentiating early hominins from the apes
a member of the taxonomic family that includes humans and the African apes and their immediate ancestors
a member of the human lineage after its split from ancestral chimps; used to describe all the human species that ever have existed, including the extinct ones, but excluding chimps and gorillas
term coined by L.S.B. and Mary Leakey; ancestor or contemporary of H. erectus; lived from about 1.9 to 1.44 m.y.a
Oldowan pebble tools
earliest (2.0 to 2.5 m.y.a.) stone tools; first discovered in 1931 by L.S.B. and Mary Leakey at Olduvai Gorge
derived from the French village of St. Acheul, where these tools were first identified; Lower Paleolithic tool tradition associated with H. erectus
anatomically modern humans (AMHs)
including the Cro-Magnons of Europe (31,000 B.P.) and the older fossils from Skhul (100,000) and Qafzeh (92,000); continue through the present
archaic H. sapiens
early H. sapiens, consisting of the Neandertals of Europe and the Middle East, the Neandertal-like hominins of Africa and Asia, and the immediate ancestors of all these hominids; lived from about 300,000 to 30,000 B.P.
stone technology based on a projectile point that was fastened to the end of a hunting spear; it flourished between 12,000 and 11,000 B.P. in North America
the four or five major advances of continental ice sheets in northern Europe and North America
H. sapiens neanderthalensis, representing an archaic H. sapiens subspecies, lived in Europe and the Middle East between 130,000 and 30,000 B.P.
epoch of Homo's appearance and evolution; began 2 million years ago; divided into Lower, Middle, and Upper
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