38 terms

Miller and Levine Biology Chapter 11 Vocabulary

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genetics
scientific study of heredity
fertilization
process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell
trait
specific characteristic of an individual
hybrid
offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
gene
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait; factor that is passed from parent to offspring
allele
one of a number of different forms of a gene
principle of dominance
Mendel's second conclusion, which states that some alleles are dominant and others are recessive
segregatiion
separation of alleles during gamete formation
gamete
sex cell
probability
likelihood that a particular even will occur
homozygous
having two identical alleles for a particular gene
heterozygous
having two different alleles for a particular gene
phenotype
physical characteristics of an organism
genotype
genetic makeup of an organism
Punnet square
diagram that can be used to predict the genotype and phenotype combinations of a genetic cross
independent assortment
One of Mendel's principles that states that genes for different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes
incomplete dominance
situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over another allele
codominance
situation in which the phenotypes produced by both alleles are completely expressed
multiple alleles
a gene that has more than two alleles
polygenic trait
trait that is controlled by two or more genes
homologous
term used to refer to chromosomes that each have a corresponding chromosome from the opposite-sex parent
diploid
term used to refer to a cell that contains two sets of homologous chromosomes
haploid
term used to refer to a cell that contains only a single set of genes
meiosis
process in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell
tetrad
structure containing 4 chromatids that forms during meiosis
crossing-over
process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis
zygote
fertilized egg
punnett square
a chart that predicts the outcomes of genetic crosses
Interphase
Prophase I
Metaphase I
Anaphase I
Telophase I
Prophase II
Metaphase II
Anaphase II
Telophase II
Cytokinesis (meiosis)
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