Terms in this set (85)
Definition of an animal
a living organism that feeds on organic matter, typically having specialized sense organs and nervous system and able to respond rapidly to stimuli.
Characteristics of invertebrates
lack a back bone, lack cell walls
characteristics of chordates
dorsal, hollow nerve chord, a rod of connective tissue supporting the nerve chord
a cartilaginous skeletal rod supporting the body in all embryonic and some adult chordate animals.
an animal of the large phylum Chordata, comprising the vertebrates together with the sea squirts and lancelets.
animal arranged like spokes around a center
animal with right and left halves
having parts that fail to correspond to one another in shape, size, or arrangement; lacking symmetry.
gut, liver, lungs
skeleton, muscle, kidney, heart
skin, nervous system
a multicellular organism whose mouth develops from a primary embryonic opening, such as an annelid, mollusk, or arthropod.
the first opening (the blastopore) becomes the anus, while in protostomes, it becomes the mouth.
no body cavity
partial body cavity
body cavity lined on both sides
an internal skeleton, such as the bony or cartilaginous skeleton of vertebrates.
a rigid external covering for the body in some invertebrate animals, especially arthropods, providing both support and protection.
Cambrian explosion-short period most major animal phyla appeared, predators appear and prey respond
diagram that show evolutionary relationships among groups of organisms
how are non-vertebrates chordates different from vertebrates
They have a notochord but no vertebrate so they are not considered true vertebrates
have dorsal and hollow nerve chord and supportive notochord
larval form has notochor
what are exotherms
body temps varies with environment, low energy demand, need less food, do well with warmth
what are characteristics of primates?
Long fingers and toes with nails instead of claws, strong clavicle, binocular vision
strain their food from water (sponges and clams)
Feed on dead material and bacteria (giant earthworm)
Catch and eat other animals (osprey)
eat plants or parts of plants (orangutans)
live within or on other organisms can kill or not effect host
both animals benefit algae provide food for coral and coral provides protection
Sponges digest food inside specialized cells and then the nutrients diffuse into other cells
food is broken down outside cell..cnidarians have a gastrovascular cavity and vertebrates have a digestive tract
the intermingling of substances by the natural movement of their particles.
parallel sheets of tissue that contain blood vessels (spiders)
The mantle cavity is a central feature of molluscan biology. This cavity is formed by the mantle skirt, a double fold of mantle which encloses a water space. This space contains the mollusc's gills, anus, and organs for taste, excretion and reproductive organs.
opened circulatory system
Blood is not always within blood vessels (Arthropods and mollusks)
Closed circulatory system
Blood always in vessels (annelids, octopi, and all vertebrates
reptiles and birds transform ammonia to this
mammals and amphibians transform ammonia to urea
Specialized cells that can receive and send signals
A thing or event that evokes a specific functional reaction in an organ or tissue.
Send signal to the receiver, are nerve cells within the nervous system responsible for converting external stimuli from the organism's environment into internal electrical impulses.
Transmit impulses between sensory neurons and motor neurons
Stimulus causes sensory neuron to send signal, interneurons decide reaction, motor neurons give decisions, muscles carry out action.
Control muscles and organs, make decisions and give it to muscles to carry out.
Three types of skeletons
Hydrostatic- water pressure but are more squishy
Exoskeleton- Outer skeleton, protects from predators, but have to shed shell to grow
Endoskeleton- Inner skeleton, protects vital organs, but bones can break
How do muscles generate force?
Contraction and Expansion, connected to skeletal system and permits movement.
Only involves one parent, not as much genetic diversity.
Involves two parents, more genetic diversity.
External fertilization, little or no parental care
Hatch within mother's body, born alive and fully developed
Connect to mother directly, receive nutrients from mother
Are produced during meiosis, which is a type of cell division that reduces the number of chromosomes in a parent diploid cell by half.
A flattened circular organ in the uterus of pregnant eutherian mammals, nourishing and maintaining the fetus through the umbilical cord.
A form of asexual reproduction where an unfertilized egg develops into a new individual in the absence of the male gamete.
External fertilization vs. Internal
External- Eggs are fertilized outside of mother.
Internal- Eggs are fertilized and develop inside of mother.
Mainting stable internal body conditions despite external conditions.
Ectotherms vs. Endotherms
Endotherms produce their own heat; ectotherms rely on environmental heat. Most ectotherms are cold-blooded while most endotherms are warm-blooded, but there are exceptions. Mammals are endotherms, and reptiles and amphibians are ectotherms.
system is the collection of glands that produce hormones that regulate metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood, among other things.
A cellular control mechanism in which an enzyme that catalyzes the production of a particular substance in the cell is inhibited when that substance has accumulated to a certain level, thereby balancing the amount provided with the amount needed.
Fights off diseases and viruses. Keeps body healthy.
The way an organism reacts to stimuli in its environment.
Do not have to be learned or practiced. They are also called instinctive behaviors. An instinct is the ability of an animal to perform a behavior the first time it is exposed to the proper.
a learning process that occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly paired; a response that is at first elicited by the second stimulus is eventually elicited by the first stimulus alone.
Process by which an animal increase or steps its response to a repetitive
A type of learning where behavior is controlled by consequences.
Occurs in human learning when people recognize relationships (or make novel associations between objects or actions) that can help them solve new problems
A critical period of time early in an animal's life when it forms attachments and develops a concept of its own identity. Birds and mammals are born with a pre-programmed drive to imprint onto their mother.
Physical, mental and behavioral changes that follow a roughly 24-hour cycle, responding primarily to light and darkness in an organism's environment.
The relatively long-distance movement of individuals, usually on a seasonal basis. It is found in all major animal groups, including birds, mammals, fish, reptiles, amphibians, insects, and crustaceans.
The process of finding and wooing a suitable partner to share gametes with.
The sociographical area that an animal of a particular species consistently defends against conspecifics (or, occasionally, animals of other species).
Overt, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other unpleasantness upon another individual. It may occur either in retaliation or without provocation.
Animals that live in groups and interact with each other. One big family.
Ways of animals communicating
Most animals (including people) use "body language" as well as sound and smell in order to communicate with one another. Here are some of the ways animals express themselves. Many animals communicate by smell: they release pheromones (airborne chemicals) to send messages to others.
Asexual, budding inside of them
Responsible for the integration of complex sensory and neural functions and the initiation and coordination of voluntary activity in the body.
The part of the brain at the back of the skull in vertebrates. Its function is to coordinate and regulate muscular activity.
They contain the endings of the olfactory nerves (the first pair of cranial nerves) and are concerned with the sense of smell, being prominent in the dogfish and other animals that depend on this sense.
The continuation of the spinal cord within the skull, forming the lowest part of the brainstem and containing control centers for the heart and lungs.
A lobe in the midbrain from which the optic nerve partly arises.