psych chapter 2
Terms in this set (59)
You want to design a self-report measure for your study of personality traits but you know you should be concerned that respondents will distort their answers to paint themselves in a positive light. This tendency is known as
Dr. Sung is designing a case study in order to demonstrate that a particular psychological phenomenon actually happens. Case studies can be useful in providing this kind of demonstration, also known as
What shameful experiment was conducted over the course of 40 years to determine what would happen if syphilis was left to run its course in unsuspecting "subjects" (at a time when a cure for the disease was already available)?
Which term is the type of descriptive statistics that tells us where the data tends to cluster in a data set?
Which effect listed below occurs when people experience harm from the mere expectation of harm, even when nothing harmful has actually happened to them?
The APA Ethical Principles for Human Research indicate that psychologists must take reasonable steps to
avoid harming participants
Questions such as, "What's the average level of extraversion in this sample?" call for the use of which kind of statistics?
Which procedure is being followed when researchers let test subjects know what they're likely to encounter during the test before the subjects agree to participate?
When research findings are submitted to a psychological journal for publication, the article will be sent to other professionals in the field to identify any flaws that could undermine the study's findings and conclusions. This process is called
Nobel prize winner Daniel Kahneman refers to intuitive thinking as System 1. What type of thinking does Kahneman refer to as System 2?
Which term means a mental short-cut or rule of thumb?
In a psychology journal, a statistically significant chance of a particular finding having occurred by chance 5 out of 100 times during a research study would be expressed as
p < .05.
If we want to study people's actual behavior "in the wild" without them being influenced by the laboratory setting, we can use
Using this procedure in a research study makes sure that every individual in the population being studied has an equal chance of being chosen to participate.
In the popular media (as opposed to scientific journals), research results can be presented in a misleading way because they have the tendency to exaggerate the gist or central message of the study. This is called
Which of the following statistical terms refers to a measure of variability that takes into account how far each data point is from the mean?
Which research design tool lets researchers examine a single individual or a small group of people, perhaps over an extended period of time?
Which term means a tendency in media reports to try to present two opposing sides of an issue as though both sides were equally valid?
When a politician makes the statement that the average tax return will be $5,000 for citizens of his state we should be suspicious of his statistics. It would be more meaningful to report the ______ as a measure of central tendency.
median or mode
In psychology, an experiment must contain two specific components. The first is that participants are randomly assigned to either the control group or the experimental group. The second is
manipulation of an independent variable
In a correlational design study, if one variable goes up and the other variable also goes up, the correlation is considered to be
The cases of facilitated communication and lobotomies demonstrate that good research design is important because intelligent, well-trained people
can be fooled
Which term means the extent to which we can draw cause-and-effect inferences?
Many important medical and psychological advances that benefit human beings have resulted from experimentation on animals. It is also true that experimenting on animals can cause them much suffering. Balancing these two points continues to make animal research
The most frequent score in a data set.
Although Shere Hite sent out 100,000 surveys to American women for her study on male-female relationships in the 1980s, her results were flawed because
respondents did not represent a random selection of the population being studied.
Which phrase indicates that when evaluating a story about psychology research, we should generally place more confidence in a reputable science journal than a popular magazine?
Consider the source.
Does research in psychology raise ethical issues as well as those regarding scientific value?
Yes, because these studies affect people.
The type of thinking that allows us to operate on "autopilot" and make snap decisions.
When we perceive a statistical association between two events, such as rainy weather and arthritis flare-ups, we are experiencing the phenomenon called
When research participants pick up clues as to the nature of the researcher's hypothesis, their responses can be influenced by what they believe the researcher wants to find. These clues are called
The two kinds of statistics used by psychologists are descriptive statistics and ________ statistics.
Which technique was accepted for use with autistic children before tightly controlled laboratory studies proved the results illusory?
Which research design would we use to study a rare or unusual phenomenon that would be hard to re-create in a laboratory setting?
The purpose of sending research articles to peer reviewers prior to publication is to
identify flaws in the research
The technical term for a score that is much higher or lower than the typical responses and can provide a misleading picture of the data set.
When evaluating psychological findings, we should be careful of using heuristics, which are not always accurate. This kind of thinking is based on
Because carefully controlled studies generate more trustworthy results, the high internal validity of these studies can lead to
NOT correlation of causation
You want to design a study that will be in high in internal validity and allow you to infer causation. Which research design should you use?
Which term refers to consistency of measurement, for instance, a questionnaire that yields similar scores over time?
Questionnaires fall into which category of measurement tools?
Which type of research design is considered high in external validity, that is, the extent to which findings can be generalized to real-world situations?
What does the "toolbox" of the scientific method help us to avoid?
the dangers of intuitive thinking
Which measure of the central tendency can be affected by an extreme score?
This measure of variability represents the difference between the highest and lowest score.
Which of the following is considered a "no-no" as a way to present statistical data?
truncated line graph
Which term describes a curved line on a graph that can be bell-shaped, negatively skewed, or positively skewed?
Which term refers to the middle score in a data set?
The authors accept the philosophical belief that science is ________, that is, neither good nor bad.
The process in which researchers inform participants about what the test was about and, sometimes, explain their hypothesis in nontechnical language is called
Which group at every major American research college and university reviews all research carefully to protect participants against abuses?
instiutional review board
Which of the following is NOT one of the APA's published codes of ethics regarding Informed Consent?
Participants should not be deceived about research procedures that may cause the participants physical pain or emotional distress.
Research using animals generates much anger and discomfort, especially when the research involves ________ procedures that cause physical harm to the animals.
To be sure that we aren't fooled by popular media reports about psychology research, we should be on the lookout for
sharpening and leveling
In addition to finding flaws in research that has been submitted for publication, peer reviewers also
suggest ways to improve the research study in future attempts.
Analytical thinking is ______ compared to intuitive thinking.
Which of the following helps us to avoid the pitfalls of relying too much on intuition and heuristics?
The story of how facilitated communication was debunked is a powerful illustration of the triumph of science over