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Paper 2: Clinical - Schizophrenia (The Role of Genes)
Terms in this set (11)
Can be passed from one generation to the next through genes
a unit of heredity which is transferred from a parent to offspring and is involved in determining some characteristic of the offspring.
thread-like structures made up of DNA tightly coiled around proteins called histones that support its structure; found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes
number of pairs of chromosomes in humans
number of genes which have been linked to schizophrenia;
number of chromosomes that have been linked to schizophrenia
13 and 6
Researchers seem particularly interested in these two chromosomes in terms of links to schizophrenia
a gene which codes for the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase which breaks down dopamine. Deletion of this gene could, therefore, lead to hyperdopaminergia and potentially cause positive symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions.
A chromosome disorder caused by the deletion of a specific part of chromosome 22, containing around 30-40 genes; as many as 1 in 4 people with this condition develop schizophrenia
a gene which regulates levels of GABA; people with abnormalities to this gene are more likely to develop schizophrenia than people without this abnormality
A neurotranmsitter which has been linked to schizophrenia; in the limbic system glutamate acts as a brake to reduce dopamine levels and it does this by signalling to GABA neurons which then are involved in reducing dopamine levels; problems with low glutamate of low GABA could therefore be responsible for hyperdopaminergia in this region which has been linked to positive symptoms of schizophrenia.
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