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Evaluating the role of genes on schizophrenia
Terms in this set (13)
Looks at families where at least one member has schizophrenia and works out concordance rates for other family members, e.g. how likely another family member is to also have schizophrenia; this allows you to compare the probability for first, second, third degree relatives.
concordance rate for full siblings when one sibling has schizophrenia
concordance rate for first cousins when one sibling has schizophrenia
amount of shared DNA for full siblings (first degree relatives)
first cousins (third degree relatives)
Concordance rate for MZ twins (share 100% DNA) Gottesman and Shields (1966)
Concordance rate for DZ twins (share 50% DNA) Gottesman and Shields (1966)
Concordance rate for MZ twins in a meta analysis conducted by Sullivan et al (2003)
Environmental Breeder hypothesis
Focuses on the nurture side of the argument and findings which cannot be explained by biology alone, e.g. why second generation immigrants are more at risk than first generation immigrants, why people are more at risk when they are in the minority, when people are more at risk when levels of discrimination are higher etc.
Luhrmann et al
Cross cultural study on hearing voices in Ghana, India and USA demonstrating that cultural values are consistently linked to whether the voices are perceived as threatening and negative or as a positive addition to the person's life.
Zubin and Spring suggestion that schizophrenia has a genetic underpinning which predisposes a person to the condition but that this will only manifest itself if certain precipitating factors are present ,e.g social stress.
Changes in gene expression (which can be inherited by the next generation) which are caused by environmental factors
Sir Robin Murray: Mistakes I have made
he suggested in his 2016 article that the research community has focused too long on biological and genetic research in schizophrenia, failing to research the role of environmental factors in determining the development and prognosis of schizophrenia; he said if he could have his time again he would like to have not "gone with the herd" sticking to "prevailing orthodoxy"; it could be interpreted that he wishes he had not just researched topics which he knew would be published and had attempted more pioneering "paradigm flipping" research, questioning the "status quo".
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