Terms in this set (34)
Titles of People - social and professional titles, government officials and family relationships
Capitalize the names of various organization, government bodies, political parties, and nationalities, as well as the languages spoken by different groups
-Titles of Works- written works and school courses
Capitalize the first word and all other key words in the titles of books, newspapers, magazines, short stories, poems, and artwork. Capitalize the title of a school course when it is followed by a course number or when it refers to a language. Otherwise, do not capitalize school subjects.
Commas after introductory words, phrases, and clauses
Use a comma before the conjunction to separate two main or independent clauses in a compound sentence. Use commas to separate three or more words, phrases, or clauses in a series. Ex-A gorilla's diet includes roots, stems, leaves, and fruit.
commas with parenthetical expressions
Use commas to set off parenthetical expressions from the rest of the sentence. A parenthetical expression in the middle of the end of a sentence needs only one. Ex-Sit down, Brock, while I explain my reasons. Please come straight home, Chung.
-commas with nonessential expressions ( appositives, participial phrases, and adjectival clauses)
Use commas to set off nonessential expressions from the main clause. Do not set off essential material commas. Appositives are often set of with commas, but only when their meaning is not essential to the sentence. Ex-The Hurricanes, the winning team, prepared for the parade.
-semicolons to join independent clauses
Use a semicolon to join related independent clauses that are not joined by the conjunctions and, or, nor, for, but, so, or yet. Ex-The winding river has many hazard;it is full of snakes and alligators.
-semicolons to join clauses separated by conjunctive adverbs and transitional expressions
Use a semicolon to join independent clauses separated by either a conjunctive adverb or a transitional expression. Ex-He arrived late at the train station that morning; as a result, he missed the beginning of the concert.
-semicolons to avoid confusion
Consider the use of semicolons to avoid confusion when items in a series already contain commas. Place a semicolon after all but the last complete item in a series. Ex-The children, laughing-; the clowns, singing;
-dashes to show sudden break
Use a dash to show a sudden break in thought speech> Ex-I can't believe how many goals she scored--Oh, did you see that butterfly?
- dashes to replace words
Use a dash in place of in other words, namely, or that is before an explanation. Ex- Dana skateboarded for one reason -- pure enjoment.
nominative case pronouns
Use the nominative case for (1) the subject of a verb and (2) a predicate pronoun. Ex-He, they, she.
-objective case pronouns
Use the objective case for (1) a direct object (2) an indirect object, and (3) the object of a preposition
The Possessive Case
Use the possessive case of personal pronouns before nouns to show possession. In addition, certain personal pronouns may also be used by themselves to indicate possession. Ex-The team won its tournament.
-cases of who and whom
Use who for the subject of a verb. Use whom for (1) the direct object of a verb and (2) the object of a preposition. Ex-Who ran the fastest? Whom did she meet at the park?
prepositional phrases between subject and verb (pg.514)
A prepositional phrase that comes between a subject and its verb does not affect subject-verb agreement. Ex-The arrival of the students has caused much excitement at the ceremony.
-making verbs agree with collective nouns
Use a singular verb with a collective noun acting as a single unit. Use a plural verb when the individual members of the group are acting individually. Ex-The committee votes on the new chair. The committee have split their votes on the issue.
-compound subjects joined by Or or Nor
A compound subject refers to two or more subjects that a verb. Compound subjects are connected by conjunctions such as and, or, nor. Ex-The museums and historical sits in Chicago attract many visitors.
-agreement in inverted sentences
In most sentences the subject comes before the verb. Ex-Do the cultural attractions in New York City sound exciting to you?
verb agreement with indefinite pronouns
Indefinite pronouns refer to people, places, or things in a general way. When an indefinite pronoun is the subject of a sentence, the verb must agree in number with the pronoun. Ex-Each of the football team mascots is at the game
Good and well
Good is an adjective. Well can be either an adjective or an adverb, depending on its meaning. A common mistake is the use of good after an action verb. Use the adverb well instead. Ex-The class danced well last evening. The report looks well.
Fewer and less
Use the adjective fewer to answer the question, "How many?" Use the adjective less to answer the question, "How much?" Ex-fewer pencils;less work
Lay and lie
These verbs look and sound almost alike and have similar meanings. The first step distinguishing between lay and lie is to memorize the principal parts of both verbs. Ex-The soldier lays his mess kit on the ground. The children must lie down at rest time
An adjective phrase or adjectival phrase is a prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or pronoun by telling what kind or which one. Ex-The green meadow started here. The meadow with two oak trees began there.
An adverbial phrase is a prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. Adverbial phrases point out where, when, in what way, or to what extent. Ex-Bring your books into the library.
Appositives and appositive phrases
An appositive is a noun or pronoun placed after another noun or pronoun to identify, rename, or explain the preceding word. Ex-Our captain Katie Woo won the race.
A participle is a form of a verb that is often used as an adjective. There are two kinds of participles, present participles and past participles. each kind can be recognized by its ending. ING. Ex-Talking, doing eating, wanting. Opened, jumped, played, moved.
A gerund is a form of a verb that acts as a noun. Ex-The loud, shrill ringing continued all day.
An infinitive is a verb form that can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. The word to usually appears before the verb. Ex-It is necessary to drive.He is the one to call. To study can be difficult sometimes
An adverbial clause or adverb clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. Ex-The service will begin when the speaker enters.
An adjectival clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or a pronoun. Ex-Apples that are juicy and sweet. The town where I am from
The simple sentence is the most common type of sentence structure. Consists of a single independent clause. Ex-The floor squeaked and groaned.
A compound sentence consists of two or more main or independent clauses. and, but, for, nor, or, so, yet. Ex-Linda ran a two day computer seminar, and ten managers agreed to speak.
A complex sentence consists of one main or independent clause and one or more subordinate clauses. Ex-July 4,1776, is the day that America won its independence.
A compound-complex sentence consists of two or more main or independent clauses and one or more subordinate clauses. Ex- As Joan was leaving for vacation, she remembered to take her ticket, but she forgot her passport that she renewed the month before
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