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Terms in this set (30)
It is important to ensure that your diet is adequately rich in vitamins because ________.
most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients
__________ refers to reactions in which small molecules are used to build larger molecules
Anabolism refers to the building of macromolecules from smaller precursors (e.g., building proteins from amino acids).
The movement of H+ through the ATP synthase is best described as an example of __________.
H+ cannot diffuse directly through the semipermeable phospholipid bilayer. The ATP synthase contains a channel that allows the diffusion of H+ down its concentration gradient. Diffusion of H+ releases energy that is used by the ATP synthase to phosphorylate ADP, producing ATP.
Anabolism includes reactions in which ________
larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones
t or f: It would not be healthy to eliminate all fats from your diet because they serve a useful purpose in maintaining the body.
Which of the following is NOT a fat-soluble vitamin?
Vitamin B is a water-soluble vitamin.
The most abundant dietary lipids are ________
Which of the following is NOT considered a nutrient?
ATP is produced within the cells. If ATP were to be ingested, it would be digested and broken down into more basic nutrients.
t or f: A growing child is likely to exhibit negative nitrogen balance.
In healthy adults, the rate of protein synthesis equals the rate of protein breakdown and loss, a state called nitrogen balance. In contrast, in a growing child or in a pregnant woman, protein incorporation into tissues outpaces the breakdown of protein. This leads to a state known as positive nitrogen balance. If protein breakdown exceeds the rate of protein incorporation into tissues, the individual is in negative nitrogen balance. A person in a state of physical stress (i.e., infection, starvation, or malnutrition) would exhibit a negative nitrogen balance.
In India, rice is a large part of the diet. Lack of which vitamin in rice would lead to higher levels of blindness in this population?
What is the primary function of cellular respiration?
to regenerate ATP:
Cellular respiration takes energy from our food nutrients and transfers that energy into a usable form of energy in ATP.
Which of the following food groups are considered good sources of complete proteins?
eggs, milk, yogurt, meat, and fish
Catabolism would be best described as a process that ________.
breaks down complex structures to simpler ones
Which nutrients function primarily as an energy source for cells?
Carbohydrates: are needed in relatively large amounts to supply glucose, the main energy source for body cells.
t or f: There are NO nutritionally complete proteins. All animal products should be eaten with plant material to make a nutritionally complete protein.
t or f: The body is considered to be in nitrogen balance when the amount of nitrogen ingested in lipids equals the amount excreted in urine.
Which of the following nutrients is NOT matched with its use in the body?
Proteins and lipids both are used to synthesize hormones, but not carbohydrates.
t or f: The term essential nutrient refers to the chemicals that can be interconverted in the liver so that the body can maintain life and good health
The term metabolism is best defined as _______
the sum of all biochemical reactions in the body
t or f: Except for lactose and some glycogen, the carbohydrates we ingest are mainly from animals.
At the conclusion of glycolysis, most of glucose's chemical energy is found in the ________.
pyruvic acid molecules
The citric acid cycle occurs in the __________ of cells and is an __________ process.
The citric acid cycle occurs in the mitochondria of cells. While the citric acid cycle does not directly use oxygen, it is part of the aerobic pathways for metabolism.
Cholesterol, though it is NOT an energy molecule, has importance in the body because it ________.
is a stabilizing component of the plasma membranes and is the parent molecule of steroid hormones
Proton pumps within the electron transport chain transport H+ ions __________.
from matrix to intermembrane space:
The proton pumps within the electron transport chain transport H+ ions (protons) across the inner mitochondrial matrix (bottom of the figure) to the intermembrane space (top of figure).
The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available fuel for neurons and blood cells is ________.
Which of the following is a common feature of both sets of reactions represented by A and B in the figure?
Both include steps involving the oxidation of organic molecules:
Both glycolysis (A) and the citric acid cycle (B) involve the stepwise breakdown of food molecules by a series of oxidation reactions
In the case of a person who consumes a normal, balanced diet, proteins are essential to the body for all of the following EXCEPT ________.
production of energy
Which of the following statements best describes complete protein?
must contain all the body's amino acid requirements for tissue maintenance and growth
t or f: The most abundant dietary lipids in the diets of most Americans are triglycerides.
t or f: Most ATP in cellular respiration is regenerated in substrate level phosphorylation.
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