Terms in this set (71)
What are the 3 main components of air?
Nitrogen (78%), Oxygen (20%), and Argon (.9%
How are altitude and pressure related?
Pressure decreases with increasing altitude
How are altitude and temperature related
Air temperature decreases as altitude increases
What are the four layers of the atmosphere from the ground up?
Troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere and Thermosphere
In which layers does the temperature actually increase as you go up
The stratosphere and thermosphere.
Where is the ozone layer
The ozone layer is in the stratosphere.
Know the location of the two kinds of ozone, one is good, one is not so good.
Good ozone is in stratosphere, harmful ozone is in troposphere.
What two components of our atmosphere are responsible for greenhouse effects?
Carbon dioxide and water vapor.
Where do auroras take place in our atmosphere?
High northern and southern latitudes.
How does carbon dioxide enter our atmosphere?
Animals and plants get rid of carbon dioxide gas through a process called respiration. Carbon moves from fossil fuels to the atmosphere when fuels are burned. Enters as gas.
What are the rules for drawing isotherms?
Draw your isotherm in a neat and smooth line instead of a jagged line. (trace lightly in pencil. then go over when done.) An isotherm should begin and end at an edge of the map, or, alternatively, loop around and close on itself. An isotherm should never branch or fork. Isotherms should be drawn at equal intervals. Lines should never cross.
What is heat? What is temperature?
Heat is a form of energy that can be transferred from one object to another. It can also be created. Temperature is The degree or intensity of heat present in an object.
What are the three types of heat transfer?
Conduction- Heat or electricity is directly transferred through a substance when there is a difference in temperature. (When two things are touching)
Convection- The movement caused within a fluid where the hotter and less dense material rises and cold more dense liquid falls.
Radiation- The emission of energy as electromagnetic waves. (sun to earth)
What are isotherms? What are isobars?
A line on a map that connects areas with the same temperatures. Isobars are lines on a map connecting areas with the same amount of atmospheric pressure.
How do hydrogen and helium amounts change over time and affect the sun's energy?
After a significant portion of their hydrogen is converted to helium an internal change occurs. The internal core collapses and heats until it is hot enough to fuse helium into larger atoms.
How does the sun get its energy?
Nuclear fusion. Four atoms of hydrogen fuse to form one atom of helium which is now energy.
Define relative humidity.
the amount of water vapor present in air expressed as a percentage of the amount needed for saturation at the same temperature.
What does dew point mean and in what places does it occur?
The atmospheric temperature at which water droplets begin to form and dew can occur.
What is required for water vapor to condense?
Dew point must occur.
Understand why: When water vapor content remains the same, lowering air temperatures causes an increase in relative humidity.
What does falling air pressure mean? What does rising air pressure mean?
The mass of the atmosphere is decreasing for falling air pressure. Rising air pressure means The mass is increasing.
What causes winds?
Differences in atmospheric pressure. Air moves from the higher to lower pressure areas.
Air always moves from areas of ---- pressures to ----- pressure
Air always moves from areas of high pressures to low pressure.
Know the four types of lifting air.
Orthographic lifting- Presence of a mountain causes air to rise.
Frontal wedging- When cool air acts as a barrier to warm air.
Convergence- When air masses come together and rise.
Localized convective lifting- Unequal surfaces of heating causes localized pockets of air to rise.
Explain ocean breezes at night and daytime.
During day sun heats up ocean surface and land, air will blow from higher pressure which is over water to lower pressure which is over land causing the sea breeze.
At night roles reverse.
Explain valley breezes at day vs night.
During day sun heats up valley air rapidly while mountains stay cooler. Convection causes it to rise which is a valley breeze. At night mountains are warmer and air travels into the valley from mountains as the mountain wind.
What is the name of the global wind that affects most of the weather in the U.S.?
Explain the Coriolis effect. How does it change between the northern and southern hemisphere?
a mass moving in a rotating system experiences a force (the Coriolis force ) acting perpendicular to the direction of motion and to the axis of rotation. On the earth, the effect tends to deflect moving objects to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern and is important in the formation of cyclonic weather systems.
What types of clouds signal a warm front? Cold Front?
Cold front- Cumulonimbus, cirrostratus, cirrus and fair weather cumulus.
Warm front- Altocumulus, altostratus.
Know the characteristics of an area of low pressure and high pressure. What is wind doing in each.
Low pressure- circulates counter clockwise, forces air upwards resulting in condensation, cloud formation and precipitation.
High pressure- Circulates clockwise, causing a sinking motion in atmosphere which results in fair, clear and often sunnier skies.
What is a stationary front?
A pair of air masses, where neither is strong enough to replace each other, or when warm or cold fronts stop moving.
Where do storms, tornados and hurricanes get their energy?
From the warm waters of the mid atlantic ocean.
Know the relationship between El nino and weather in Peru.
The warmer waters cause fish to leave. Fishing in Peru is a huge part of the economy so it hits hard. Not nearly as many fish are caught.
Is a transition of the warm water at the ocean's surface and the cool water deep below it.
How did El ninos affect our weather in the US this year? What is upwelling? Why is it important?
It changes precipitation patterns and often time temperatures. Upwelling is when deep cold water rises towards the surface. It bring nutrients from the bottom of the body of water to the top which is often nutrient poor.
What causes surface currents?
The coriolis effect.
What causes deep water currents?
Differences in water temperature and salinity (density)
Name the deepest and largest ocean.
What increases ocean salinity?
Evaporation of ocean water and formation of sea ice.
Understand density as relating to volume and mass.
Density explains the proportional relationship between volume and mass.
Along what underwater tectonic feature is new ocean being created?
Mid ocean ridge.
What causes tides?
The gravitational interaction between the earth and the moon.
What are phytoplankton? Why are they important?
Organisms that drift with the current in fresh or salt water. They are primary producers and other animals eat them to stay alive, and this keeps the ecosystem and food chain healthy.
Know the levels of ecological organization.
Biosphere- The earth.
Ecosystem- The area in which all the animal species live.
Community- interactions among population
Population- the amount of a certain species
Organism/individual- One animal belonging to a certain population.
Know the trophic levels, beginning with producers.
Producer's- First step, plants, grass and trees.
Primary consumers- eat the producers
Secondary consumers- eat the primary consumers
Tertiary consumers- eat the secondary consumers
Quaternary consumers- Eat the tertiary consumers
What happens to the amount of energy when moving from grass to top carnivores?
The amount of energy transferred gets smaller and smaller.
Understand succession and carrying capacity.
A biome or environment evolving over time. Carrying capacity is The amount of animals or organisms an environment can hold at one time.
Know the pioneer species of the rocky mountains as discussed in class.
What factors influence population size?
carrying capacity, weather, disease and competition among animals. As well as abiotic and biotic factors.
How are density dependent population factors different from density independent factors?
Density dependent is affected by birth and death rate factors such as competition and predation. Density Independent is affected by environmental conditions for example fires.
What are the 3 different types of symbiosis?
Mutualism- Both partners benefit
Commensalism- Only one benefits the other is neither helped nor harmed.
Parasitism- One organism benefits, another suffers.
Why do people aerate their lawns?
The pore spots are filled with oxygen which is needed to keep a lawn healthy.
What is denitrification?
The removal of nitrogen compounds.
What is the difference between renewable and nonrenewable resources?
Nonrenewable resources such as coal are limited in supply due to the long time it takes to replenish them. Renewable resources are replenished naturally and through short periods of time.
Which energy resources produce the most carbon dioxide?
Fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, etc.)
Know the difference between fission and fusion.
Fission is splitting, fusion is combining.
Know the difference between kinetic and potential energy.
Potential energy is stored. Kinetic energy is relative to other stationary and moving objects.
What form of energy meets the vast majority of our nation's energy needs?
What form of energy supplies half of our nation's electricity?
Where is energy stored in nonrenewable potential energy sources? How is it released?
Plants and animals when they die. They are crushed and turned into rock and other matter, we then discover it and convert it to energy.
What is cellular respiration? What does it require? What are its products?
It breaks down glucose and releases ATP and then releases waste products. It requires glucose and its products are ATP and waste products.
Know the parts of an experiment.
Independent variables, dependent variables, materials, procedures, constant variables, hypothesis, conclusion, data, and observations.
What is an experiment?
a scientific procedure undertaken to make a discovery, test a hypothesis, or demonstrate a known fact.
What's the difference between biotic and abiotic factors
Abiotic are nonliving chemical and physical factors in an ecosystem. Biotic factors are living components of an ecosystem.
Which plate boundary creates or destroys earth's crust?
Know the layers of the earth (Inward to outward)
Inner core, outer core, mantle and crust.
Know the 3 types of rocks.
Metamorphic- created when the minerals in rocks are changed underground by heat or pressure.
Igneous- Created when magma cools and becomes solid.
Sedimentary- made up of particles of sediment such as sand, and clay or skeletons of creatures.
Where does the heat for mantle convection come from?
Know the characteristics of earthquake waves: p and s
P waves push and pull. They can travel through solids and liquids. Fast.
S waves do the most damage, move slower, can only move through solid rock, move up and down or side to side.
Know the 3 volcano types and intrusive igneous features.
Composite cone- Cone shaped volcanoes, made of layers of rock, ash, lava and other debris. Erupt in an explosive manner. Sides are very steep.
Shield volcanoes- Broad, dome shaped, with long gently sloped slides. Never grow very tall. Eruptions are less explosive, lava tumbles out of opening at the top.
Cinder cones- Built from lava fragments called cinders. Glassy volcanic fragments that cool on the volcano.
What is the difference between normal, reverse and strike slip faults?
Normal- The hanging wall moves downward.
Reverse- Hanging wall moves upward
Strike slip- movement is horizontal.