EFP EXAM PREP

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Jimmy makes dinner by looking at his ingredients and then combining them into a meal.

Nora makes dinner by deciding on the meal and then selecting the ingredients.

Jimmy is cooking in a ____________ manner and Nora is cooking in a
____________ manner.

a. top-down; top-down
b. top-down; bottom-up
c. bottom-up; top-down
d. bottom-up; bottom-up
C- bottom-up; top-down
According to recognition-by-components theory:

a. objects are composed of geons
b. all
objects in the world can be broken down into 36 different geons
c. object recognition is viewpoint invariant
d. All of the above
D-all of the above
Which of the following is an example of using critical thinking and scientific reasoning?

a. believing that sugar causes ADHD because you feel hyper after eating a candy bar
b. concluding
that listening to Mozart improves learning in children after reading an article about this topic in a popular magazine
c. using a personal example to show how a psychological principle must be wrong
d. conducting research to investigate the effectiveness of left brain/right brain games in improving memory
d. conducting research to investigate the effectiveness of left brain/right brain games in improving memory
Which of the following is the best definition of psychological science?

a. the study of the brain and its function
b. the
study of the mind, the brain, and thought processes
c. the
study of the mind, the brain, and behavior
d. the
study of the mind, the psyche, and behavior
c. the
study of the mind, the brain, and behavior
Taj is writing a paper on global warming. He only includes research findings that support his own beliefs about global warming because he thinks that all the contradictory findings must be the result of flawed research. This is an example of:

a. misunderstanding or not using statistics
b. hindsight bias
c. a failure to accurately judge source credibility
d. the confirmation bias
D- the confirmation bias
Peeping through a keyhole, you can see only four wooden legs, equally spaced and the same size. You correctly conclude that you are seeing a chair by using:

a. top-down processing
b. bottom-up processing
c. the
Gestalt law of similarity
d. figure-ground segmentation
a- top-down processing
Which level of analysis in psychology is correctly matched with an example?

a. Cultural level: At low doses, cocaine can improve performance on visual attention tasks, such as detecting specific stimuli appearing on a computer screen
b. Individual level: Cocaine abuse is associated with a history of violence and sexual abuse in the family
c. Biological level: Cocaine exerts its effects by prolonging the presence of specific chemicals at the junctions between nerve cells
d. Cultural level: Cocaine abuse is associated with high levels of the personality trait of neuroticism and with low levels of the trait of conscientiousness
c. Biological level: Cocaine exerts its effects by prolonging the presence of specific chemicals at the junctions between nerve cells
A recent survey found that 80 percent of high school students believed that they were above average on reading, writing, and math skills. Given that only 50 percent can be above average on any dimension, this is an example of the ________ bias.

a. hindsight
b. confirmation
c. self-serving
d. egocentric
c- self-serving
People see the figure ( ) as an oval rather than two separate curving lines. Which Gestalt principle accounts for this outcome?

a. Similarity
b. Closure
c. Good continuation
d. Proximity
b-closure
Consider the two following patterns: >>>>><<<<< ; +++++*****. The ten characters in the first pattern are typically perceived as a single figure, while the ten characters in the second pattern are perceived as two groups of five characters each. Which Gestalt principle accounts for this outcome?

a. Similarity
b. Proximity
c. Good continuation
d. Closure
a- similarity
The function of interneurons is to communicate:

a. between the brain and the spinal cord
b. between the brain and sensory neurons
c. outside of the brain
d. within a neural circuit
d-within a neural circuit
The ________ capture(s) the incoming chemical signal while the ________ release(s) the chemical signal

a. terminal buttons; dendrites
b. dendrites; terminal buttons
c. cell body; axon
d. axon; cell body
b- dendrites; terminal buttons
What is the state of the electrical charge when a neuron is said to be at resting potential?

a. inside the neuron is more positive than outside the neuron
b. inside the neuron is more negative than outside the neuron
c. both the inside and outside of the neuron are of equal electrical charge
d. the inside of the neuron is hyperpolarized
b. inside the neuron is more negative than outside the neuron
What happens when the action potential reaches the terminal button?

a. the signal terminates, or ends
b. the signal causes the vesicles to release neurotransmitters
c. the terminal button sends it down the axon
d. the signal causes reuptake of neurotransmitters in the synapse
b. the signal causes the vesicles to release neurotransmitters
Suppose you have found more relevant articles than you can use for a short research essay.Which of the following is the best way to determine the quality of a particular source?

a. When the article was published
b. How easily you can get the article
c. Whether the article is scholarly
c- whether the article is scholarly
You type "water shortages" into a library catalogue search and get no results. What do you conclude?

a. There is nothing on this topic
b. I have not used the right words
c. All items on this topic are on loan
b-I have not used the right words
Researchers must distinguish between academic journals and popular magazines. Which is the best way to distinguish an academic journal from a magazine?

a. Academic journals have articles which are short and only include objective facts
b. Academic journals have articles which include a list of references to other scholarly works
c. The intended audience for academic journals is only other scholars
b. Academic journals have articles which include a list of references to other scholarly works
Section 6.25 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th Edition) states that the order of references in the reference list should:

a. Be alphabetized by the Authors surname
b. Be ordered by year of publication with most recent first
c. Be ordered by year of publication with the earliest date first
c. Be ordered by year of publication with the earliest date first
Li-Ting is painting a picture. She paints a vase of flowers and then, right next to it, half of a book. When Bijal looks at the painting, she sees the book as being _____________ because of ____________.

a. adjacent to the vase; linear perspective
b. behind the vase; linear perspective
c. behind the vase; occlusion
d. adjacent to the vase; occlusion
c. behind the vase; occlusion
James experienced a brain injury and now he can only say "tan." James's injury most likely occurred in:

a. medulla oblongata
b. motor cortex
c. the brainstem
d. Broca's area
d- Broca's area
Ayelet is trying to draw a picture of two people on opposite sides of a river. No matter how carefully she tries to draw the two people the same size, the person who is supposed to be on the distant side seems to be much taller than the person who is supposed to be on the closer side. You could explain that the depth cue of ____________ means that she will need to draw ____________ of the person who is to be seen as further away.

a. relative size; a larger image
b. familiar size; a larger image
c. familiar size; a smaller image
d. relative size; a smaller image
d. relative size; a smaller image
Brad has experienced a relatively severe left hemisphere stroke. As a result, he is unable to move his right arm and has a great deal of difficulty with planning and with maintaining attention. The location of his stroke is most likely the:

a. frontal lobe
b. parietal lobe
c. temporal lobe
d. occipital lobe
a. frontal lobe
A young child is referred to Dr. Marco's psychology practice following a severe accident. The child had vision prior to the accident, but because of a blow to the head, she can no longer see. Her eyes are still fully functional. Based on this information, Dr. Marco determines that the brain area most likely damaged in the accident is the:

a. frontal lobe
b. parietal lobe
c. temporal lobe
d. occipital lobe
d. occipital lobe
When you are looking at the beach from a distance, the ocean sand looks smooth and uniform, but when you sit down on the sand you can see all of the bumps and colours. This is an example of which depth cue?

a. Position relative to the horizon
b. Figure to ground
c. Motion parallax
d. Texture gradient
d. Texture gradient
Terry, a split-brain patient, is shown two pictures simultaneously: the right side of her visual field is presented with a pencil, and the left side of her visual field is presented with a pen. When Terry is asked what she saw, she will say "pencil." Why?

a. The left hemisphere is primarily responsible for language production
b. The right hemisphere is primarily responsible for language production
c. The left visual field is primarily responsible for object processing.
d. The right visual field is primarily responsible for object processing
a. The left hemisphere is primarily responsible for language production
An Ames room is constructed so that the two back corners seem to be equidistant from the front of the room, when the right corner is actually much further away. If someone first sits in the left corner and then sits in the right corner, that person will seem ____________ when s/he is sitting in the right corner.

a. further away
b. smaller
c. closer
d. bigger
b-smaller
If you look at a sheet of white paper in a dim room and then look at it in bright sunlight, the paper will reflect more light to the eye when you are outside than inside. Yet we see the paper as having the same lightness in both situations. Why?

a. The brain adjusts for our memory of the lightness of the paper
b. the brain adjusts the perception of the lightness of the paper
c. the brain uses the paper/surround intensity ratio in both locations
d. The brain makes the assumption that lightness does not change with location
c. the brain uses the paper/surround intensity ratio in both locations
If you wish to appear slimmer, you should surround yourself with fatter friends. This phenomenon is based on the ______________ illusion, in which relative size information guides perception.

a. Poggendorf
b. Zöllner
c. Ebbinghaus
d. Müller-Lyer
c. Ebbinghaus
Which of the following influences perception bottom-up, rather than top-down?

a. Perceptual set
b. Context
c. Schemas
d. None of these options
d. None of these options
Which of the following statements is TRUE?

a. Motivation exerts a bottom-up influence on perception
b. Ovulating women perceive more masculine men as more attractive
c. People who are food-deprived take longer to recognise food-related words than controls
d. People who are food-deprived take longer to recognise neutral words than controls
b. Ovulating women perceive more masculine men as more attractive
Which of the following is NOT a function of the somatic nervous system?

a. feeling where your foot is as you step
b. feeling pins and needles when your arm falls asleep
c. feeling sad
d. feeling the position on the baseball as you are ready to throw it
c. feeling sad
You might think of the pituitary gland as the master gland because it:

a. is in the brain, the master of the body
b. facilitates cognitive mastery of problems
c. controls the release of hormones throughout the system
d. allows for the mastery of skills
c. controls the release of hormones throughout the system
Which of the following statements is a myth about brain plasticity across the life span?

a. Neurogenesis occurs across the life span
b. Environmental conditions play a large role in neurogenesis
c. Adult brains form no new cells
d. Most forgetting occurs later in life
c. Adult brains form no new cells
Men and women have been shown to differ on all but which of the following?

a. the degree to which they use language-related brain regions
b. intelligence
c. the size of the brain
d. how they solve complex problems
b. intelligence
What is the typical outcome for young children who, due to disease or injury, have an entire brain hemisphere removed during a hemispherectomy?

a. There is no change in any function immediately after the surgery, due to immediate neural plasticity
b. The children are most likely profoundly cognitively disabled
c. The remaining hemisphere eventually takes on most of the lost hemisphere's function.
d. The children will be able to sit, but not walk
c. The remaining hemisphere eventually takes on most of the lost hemisphere's function.
The Smith children, although genetically related, all show slight variations in the color of their skin. These variations are most likely the result of:

. Single genotype expression.
b. Dominant gene effects.
c. Cell division.
d. Polygenic effects.
d. Polygenic effects.
Regarding the factors potentially influencing behaviour, which of the following statements is true?

a. Behaviour overwhelmingly reflects genetics.
b. Behaviour mainly stems from environmental causes.
c. Behaviour is generated mainly by the endocrine system.
d. Behaviour reflects an interaction between genetics and the environment.
d. Behaviour reflects an interaction between genetics and the environment.
Imagine you're conducting an experiment that examines the Stroop effect. Which of the following stimuli would prompt the SLOWEST reaction time?

a. **** printed in blue ink
b. SNEEF printed in blue ink
c. BLUE printed in blue ink
d. GREEN printed in blue ink
d. GREEN printed in blue ink
Little Jimmy is talking to one of the caterers setting up for his sister's wedding. While he is answering his mobile phone a different member of the catering staff
takes over. When Little Jimmy turns back to the conversation he completely fails to notice that he is now talking to a different person. Little Jimmy is experiencing:

a. serial processing
b. divided attention
c. selective attention
d. change blindness
d. change blindness
Why do monozygotic twins have different phenotypes?

a. They have the same environments but different genes.
b. They have different genotypes.
c. They have only minor phenotypic variation across a few physical traits but no differences in psychological traits.
d. They have non-shared environments.
d. They have non-shared environments.
According to Broadbent (1958), attention works like a:
a. tape recorder
b. funnel
c. filter
d. sponge
c. filter
Most behavioural geneticists are primarily interested in:

a.
Discovering the degree of genetic and environmental influence on psychological phenomena.
b. Mapping the human genome.
c. Discovering how genes control psychological but not biological behaviours.
d. Proving that genes have a stronger influence on behaviour than does environment
a.
Discovering the degree of genetic and environmental influence on psychological phenomena.
Bill and his sister, Ann, are twins; however, they cannot be:
a. Dizygotic twins.
b. Monozygotic twins.
c. Fraternal twins.
d. Raised apart.
b. Monozygotic twins.
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
a. Selective inattention is always maladaptive
b. Attention is a limited capacity mechanism
c. Change blindness results from overuse of top-down processing
d. In dichotic listening tasks, people typically cannot report the language spoken in the unattended ear
a. Selective inattention is always maladaptive
When you're driving home your attention is captured by the sound of a siren. This is an example of _________-driven, __________ attentional selection.

a. stimulus; top-down
b. cognition; top-down
c. stimulus; bottom-up
d. cognition; bottom-up
c. stimulus; bottom-up
Which of the following statements is NOT a theory suggested to explain gender differences in alcohol consumption?

Select one:
Women may be as likely to drink, but they hide it better.
Drinking by men is more socially acceptable.
Women do not metabolize alcohol as quickly, and they consume less to get the same psychoactive effect as men get.
Women are less likely genetically to have an addictive personality.
...
The prefrontal cortex plays a predominant role in the brain's ___________ network.

Select one:
a. stimulus appraisal
b. orienting
c. executive attention
d. alerting
c. executive attention
Which of the following statements is FALSE?

Select one:
a. People in a good mood have better recall than people in a bad mood
b. In emotional Stroop tasks, the speed of colour naming for emotional words is faster than the speed of colour naming for neutral words
c. In visual search tasks, angry faces are detected faster than neutral faces
d. The attentional blink is reduced for strongly negative emotional words or images in comparison to neutral words or images
b. In emotional Stroop tasks, the speed of colour naming for emotional words is faster than the speed of colour naming for neutral words
Subliminal perception:

Select one:
a. is a preconscious process (operates below the threshold of awareness and influences conscious thought and behaviour)
b. is an unconscious process (operates without awareness and is not available to consciousness)
c. is a semiconscious process (operates without awareness but is available to consciousness)
d. None of the above
a. is a preconscious process (operates below the threshold of awareness and influences conscious thought and behaviour)
Which of the following is NOT one of the 3 mental systems Freud argues comprise consciousness?

Select one:
a. Preconscious
b. Conscious
c. Semiconscious
d. Unconscious
c. Semiconscious
Patients with unilateral neglect typically have damage to the _____ parietal lobe, results in neglect of the ______ side of space.

Select one:
a. left;right
b. right;left
c. right;right
d. left;left
b. right;left
In consciousness research, qualia refer to:

Select one:
a. sensory modalities
b. sensory qualities
c. external references
d. internal references
b. sensory qualities
Imagine you're taking part in a study that requires you to wear a beeper. Every time the beeper beeps, you are required to complete a form indicating what you are doing, who you are with, how you feel, and what you're thinking. This study is using:

Select one:
a. conscious manipulation techniques
b. day-dreaming techniques
c. experience-sampling techniques
d. attentional-shifting techniques
c. experience-sampling techniques
Which is the most common form of synaesthesia?

Select one:
a. Colour-graphemic synaesthesia
b. Texture-music synaesthesia
c. Music-colour synaesthesia
d. Colour-taste synaesthesia
a. Colour-graphemic synaesthesia
Patients with Balint's syndrome have difficulty seeing more than one thing at a time. This is known as:

Select one:
a. synaesthesia
b. optic apraxia
c. simultanagnosia
d. optic ataxia
c. simultanagnosia
Jimmy is trying to quit smoking. Research suggests that if he actively tries to suppress thoughts about smoking he will:

Select one:
a. be more likely to relapse
b. be more likely to develop OCD
c. induce positive physiological consequences
d. be more likely to succeed
a. be more likely to relapse
In a memory experiment, participants in Group A are asked to just listen to a list of words. Group B is asked to count the number of words that begin with the letter e. Group C is asked to repeat each word as they hear it. Group D is asked to use each word in a sentence. According to the ________ model of memory, ________ would later remember the most words from the list.

Select one:
a. level of processing; Group A
b. level of processing; Group D
c. spreading activation; Group C
d. spreading activation; Group B
b. level of processing; Group D
When Terry stopped using oxycontin, he had chills, cramps, and diarrhea. Which term offers the most specific description of Terry's experience

Select one:
a. dependence
b. tolerance
c. addiction
d. withdrawal
d. withdrawal
Which of the following statements is NOT a theory suggested to explain gender differences in alcohol consumption?

Select one:
a. Women are less likely genetically to have an addictive personality.
b. Women do not metabolize alcohol as quickly, and they consume less to get the same psychoactive effect as men get.
c. Women may be as likely to drink, but they hide it better.
d. Drinking by men is more socially acceptable.
a. Women are less likely genetically to have an addictive personality.
Opiates such as heroin have enormous reward value to the brain because they ________ and ________.

Select one:
a. activate dopamine receptors; block opiate receptors
b. activate dopamine receptors; bind with opiate receptors
c. inhibit dopamine receptors; block opiate receptors
d. inhibit dopamine receptors; bind with opiate receptors
b. activate dopamine receptors; bind with opiate receptors
Stimulant drugs have all of the following effects EXCEPT:

Select one:
a. improved mood.
b. increased mental concentration at low doses.
c. increased heart rate and blood pressure.
d. increased sleep.
d. increased sleep.
Changes in the strength of neural connections and construction of new synapses is the process of:

Select one:
a. encoding.
b. retrieval.
c. rehearsal.
d. consolidation.
d. consolidation.
Which of the following is NOT a consequence of prolonged methamphetamine use?

Select one:
a. memory impairment
b. reduced pain tolerance
c. depleted dopamine levels
d. frontal lobe damage
b. reduced pain tolerance
In order for us to experience the world as a continuous stream of information, one experience is kept in the brain while we move to the next experience. This overlap is a function of:

Select one:
a. long-term memory.
b. sensory memory.
c. short-term memory.
d. working memory.
b. sensory memory.
You witness an accident and see one of the cars driving away from the scene. Even though you have just seen the license plate, you cannot remember the number. The license plate was probably NOT initially:

Select one:
a. processed.
b. ignored.
c. encoded.
d. rehearsed.
c. encoded.
To remember more information, _____ can be used to organize information into meaningful units.

Select one:
a. networks of association
b. mnemonics
c. cognitive maps
d. chunking
d. chunking
Which of the following statements is FALSE? Effortful control:

Select one:
a. involves the ability to approach situations that involve punishment, and avoid situations that involve reinforcement
b. is an important component of self-regulation
c. is the ability to inhibit a dominant response in order to make another response
d. improves markedly between ages 2-4, but no longer develops after age 4
d. improves markedly between ages 2-4, but no longer develops after age 4
Myelination:

Select one:
a. speeds up neural conduction
b. increases brain size
c. begins before birth
d. All of the options included
d. All of the options included
Research on critical periods indicates that:

Select one:
a. neural plasticity increases with age
b. if children are not exposed to language prior to age 10-13, language will fail to develop normally
c. critical periods are exclusive to humans
d. children can acquire the ability to perceive binocular depth despite deprivation of vision in one eye from birth to age 2
b. if children are not exposed to language prior to age 10-13, language will fail to develop normally
Infants can imitate facial expressions:

Select one:
a. from birth
b. prenatally
c. at 12 months
d. at 3 months
a. from birth
Raising a child in a deprived environment leads to:

Select one:
a. an increased number of synaptic contacts
b. long-lasting cognitive changes
c. an increased number of dendritic spines
d. social changes that can be effectively resolved with intensive training
b. long-lasting cognitive changes
One of the best ways to remember factual information is to relate it to something personal that happened to you. In this way, you are taking advantage of your _____ memory to aid retrieval from your _____ memory.

Select one:
a. semantic; episodic
b. implicit; explicit
c. episodic; semantic
d. explicit; implicit
c. episodic; semantic
Patient H.M. suffered from seizures and had part of his medial temporal lobes removed. As a result, he could no longer:

Select one:
a. form new implicit memories.
b. remember his past.
c. form new explicit memories.
d. remember anything at all.
c. form new explicit memories.
Most forgetting is due to ____________ not ____________.

Select one:
a. decay; interference
b. transience; absentmindedness
c. absentmindedness; transience
d. interference; decay
d. interference; decay
Jacob learned French in high school and is now learning Spanish in college. He finds that sometimes when he intends to write a Spanish word he instead writes a French word. Jacob's problem is due to:

Select one:
a. proactive interference.
b. retroactive interference.
c. blocking.
d. persistence.
a. proactive interference.
Yolanda has a brain tumor. After the tumor grew to a certain size, she could no longer _____. Yolanda most likely has _____ amnesia.

Select one:
a. form new memories; anterograde
b. form new memories; retrograde
c. remember how to do certain tasks; retrograde
d. remember how to do certain tasks; anterograde
a. form new memories; anterograde
Which of the following statements is FALSE?

Select one:
a. Eight month old babies show greater attention to faces than butterflies
b. From 4-6 months, infants develop a strong preference for novel events
c. According to the discrepancy principle, babies pay more attention to information that differs a lot from their existing scheme
d. Two year old children show greater attention to butterflies than faces
c. According to the discrepancy principle, babies pay more attention to information that differs a lot from their existing scheme
The visual cliff experiment indicates that:

Select one:
a. 6-14 month old infants will cross to the deep side with encouragement from a parent
b. children are born with a fear of heights
c. goats are born with a fear of heights
d. rats will not cross to the deep side, even when encouraged with a scrumptious cheese treat
c. goats are born with a fear of heights
Imagine that you give a 3-month old infant a new toy rattle. By exploring the rattle with their senses (touch, taste, sound, vision, maybe even smell), the infant learns that the sensory information from the different channels overlaps. This phenomenon is known as:

Select one:
a. amodal synchronicity
b. simultaneous multimodality
c. multi-sensory stimulation
d. intersensory redundancy
d. intersensory redundancy
Which of the following is NOT a vital component of executive function?

Select one:
a. None these options are correct
b. Inhibition
c. Attentional control
d. Planning
a. None these options are correct
Card sorting tasks that ask children to pick two cards that are the same in some way, and then pick another pair that are the same in a different way, assess children's:

Select one:
a. cognitive compatibility
b. none of these options are correct
c. cognitive flexibility
d. cognitive complexity
c. cognitive flexibility
A picture of a carrot is an example of a(n) ________ representation; the word carrot is a(n) ________ representation

Select one:
a. analogical; symbolic
b. analogical; analogical
c. symbolic; analogical
d. symbolic; symbolic
a. analogical; symbolic
The main difference between the exemplar model and the prototype model is that the prototype model is defined by ________ of the category and the exemplar model is defined by ________ of the category.

Select one:
a. the best set of examples; the most common example
b. the best example; all the examples
c. the most common example; the best set of examples
d. all the examples; the best example
b. the best example; all the examples
The expectation that a minister will give a sermon in church, whereas a professor will give a lecture in class, comes from which property of schemas?

Select one:
a. common situations have consistent attributes
b. concepts contain prototypes
c. categories contain exemplars
d. people have specific roles within situational contexts
d. people have specific roles within situational contexts
Scripts are good because they ________, but can be bad because they ________.

Select one:
a. reinforce stereotypical behaviours; provide a guide to behaviour in a given situation
b. provide a guide to behaviour in a given situation; reinforce stereotypical behaviours
c. provide a flexible way to assess a situation; reinforce stereotypical behaviours
d. provide a guide to behaviour in a given situation; take time to activate
b. provide a guide to behaviour in a given situation; reinforce stereotypical behaviours
In problem solving, a person:

Select one:
a. moves from a present state to a goal state.
b. evaluates a conclusion for validity.
c. reasons from general to specific information.
d. selects among a set of alternatives.
a. moves from a present state to a goal state.
Research on gender role behaviour indicates that:

Select one:
a. girls have more rigid sex-role stereotypes than boys
b. it is not seen in non-human primates
c. before children develop gender stability, the exhibit preferences for same-sex playmates
d. children start to exhibit gender-typed behaviour after they can identify their own gender
c. before children develop gender stability, the exhibit preferences for same-sex playmates
Imagine a 4 year old child who's visiting the hospital - the child says confidently "Nurse Jimmy is a nice girl" because of a belief that all nurses are female. This indicates that the child has not yet attained
gender:

Select one:
a. stability
b. complexity
c. constancy
d. typing
c. constancy
Which of the following statements is TRUE?

Select one:
a. Boys develop vocabulary faster than girls
b. Boys and girls are equally likely to engage in 'rough and tumble' play
c. Newborn girls weigh more than newborn boys
d. Toddler girls show greater guilt than toddler boys when there is a mishap
d. Toddler girls show greater guilt than toddler boys when there is a mishap
The idea that children learn about gender roles from parents teaching them (e.g., encouraging girls to play with dolls and boys to play with trucks) and from observing others forms the basis of the ___________________ of sex role development.

Select one:
a. Gender schema theory
b. Psychoanalytic theory
c. Cognitive development theory
d. Social learning theory
d. Social learning theory
Mondschein et al. (2000) asked mothers of 11 month old infants to estimate the steepest slope their baby could crawl down. Results indicated that:

Select one:
a. there was no difference in actual performance between boys and girls
b. mothers expected baby boys to succeed when there was a 100% chance of failure
c. both A and B
d. neither A nor B
c. both A and B
Phonemes are:

Select one:
a. the basic sounds of a language.
b. the smallest units of language that have meaning.
c. sounds that are similar across various languages.
d. equivalent to syllables.
a. the basic sounds of a language.
The sentences Jill was kissed by Jack and Jack kissed Jill have the same:

Select one:
a. phonemes.
b. surface structure.
c. morphemes.
d. deep structure.
d. deep structure.
The disorder that results in difficulties with being able to produce speech is called:

Select one:
a. global aphasia.
b. Wernicke's aphasia.
c. Korsakoff's syndrome.
d. Broca's aphasia.
d. Broca's aphasia.
Creole languages illustrate:

Select one:
a. unique phonemes.
b. that signed languages are learned in stages similar to spoken languages.
c. the regularity of grammatical rules across languages.
d. purity of a single language.
c. the regularity of grammatical rules across languages.
The ________ approach has been shown to be the most effective way to teach reading; the ________ approach is most widely used.

Select one:
a. phonics; whole word
b. whole word; phonics
c. whole word; whole word
d. phonics; phonics
a. phonics; whole word
As adults grow older most:

Select one:
a. show significant mental decline
b. evidence increases in fluid intelligence
c. get better at making decisions
d. have reduced contrast sensitivity
d. have reduced contrast sensitivity
The brains of older adults show:

Select one:
a. cell death
b. no change in neural plasticity
c. 20-30% decrease in weight
d. reduced synaptic density
d. reduced synaptic density
Which of the following statements is FALSE?

Select one:
a. Psychomotor slowing starts in the mid-20s
b. Working memory capacity gets smaller as we age
c. We lose the ability to discriminate low frequency sounds as we age
d. As we age we take longer to acquire new information
c. We lose the ability to discriminate low frequency sounds as we age
Which of the following is NOT a predictor of healthy ageing?

Select one:
a. Income (top 33%)
b. Intellectual (healthy mind, healthy body)
c. Physical (good diet, sleep, exercise)
d. Relational (strong social network)
a. Income (top 33%)
Imagine that you are conducting a study that examines differences in memory between adolescents, middle-aged, and older adults. You ask participants to read a short story, and after a 10 minute distraction task you ask them to remember the events in the story. Following Adams (1991), results would indicate that the _________ group had the best memory for the details of the story, and the _________ group had the best memory for the gist of the story.

Select one:
a. adolescent; older adult
b. adolescent; middle-aged
c. adolescent; adolescent
d. older adult; older adult
a. adolescent; older adult
Our ability to learn, understand ideas, use knowledge to solve problems, and adapt to our environments is called:

Select one:
a. intelligence.
b. insight.
c. thought.
d. cognition.
a. intelligence.
IQ scores typically predict how much of the variation in work or school performance?

Select one:
a. 50 percent
b. 10 percent
c. 70 percent
d. 25 percent
d. 25 percent
The idea that one intelligence factor is involved in all intellectual tasks is known as:

Select one:
a. fluid intelligence.
b. single intelligence.
c. general intelligence.
d. crystallized intelligence.
c. general intelligence.
Someone who is very good at learning new things but does not have a lot of general knowledge is high in ________ intelligence. However, someone who knows lots of things but is not very good at learning to do new things is higher in ________ intelligence.

Select one:
a. fluid; creative
b. fluid; crystallized
c. crystallized; fluid
d. general; crystallized
b. fluid; crystallized
A scientist interested in studying intelligence shows people a stimulus and then quickly takes it away. The scientist then does this repeatedly, with the stimulus shown for different amounts of time, to find out how much time is needed for the participant to correctly answer a question about the stimulus. People who can perform this task with very short durations are likely to:

Select one:
a. score within the normal range on intelligence tests.
b. score higher on intelligence tests.
c. score lower on intelligence tests.
d. do poorly on inspection time tests.
b. score higher on intelligence tests.
An overdose of an acetylcholine agonist is most likely to produce

Select one:
a. fatigue
b. paralysis
c. impulsiveness
d. anxiety
b-paralysis
Which brain stem structure influences the sleep cycle, as well as general alertness?

Select one:
a. reticular formation
b. amygdala
c. cerebellum
d. medulla
a. reticular formation
When he was born, little Jimmy had a lazy eye necessitating the use of an eye patch for the first year of his life. As a result, Little Jimmy will be unlikely to be able to use which of the following depth cues?

Select one:
a. Linear perspective
b. Retinal disparity
c. Interposition
d. All of the above
b. Retinal disparity
If you close one eye, you will still be able to use ____________ as a depth cue, but you will not be able to use ____________ as a depth cue.

Select one:
a. disparity; linear perspective
b. texture gradients; disparity
c. convergence; motion parallax
d. linear perspective; occlusion
b. texture gradients; disparity
Which of the following sentences would prompt the fastest fixations on the word "coffee"?

Select one:
a. I went to Starbucks and the lady handed me a hot, steaming cup of coffee
b. I went to Starbucks and the barista handed me a hot, steaming cup of coffee
c. I went to the shop and the lady handed me a hot, steaming cup of coffee
d. I went to the shop and the barista handed me a hot, steaming cup of coffee
b. I went to Starbucks and the barista handed me a hot, steaming cup of coffee
While driving to a store, your mind wanders, and you are surprised to find that you have arrived. This experience supports the idea that:

Select one:
a. awareness needs automatic processes.
b. automatic processes need awareness.
c. automatic processes do not need awareness.
d. awareness does not need automatic processes.
c. automatic processes do not need awareness.
While at a party, a friend tells you that he thinks his brain only processes one thing at a time. To demonstrate that he is wrong, you later stand nearby and, while he is engaged in another conversation, say out-loud:

Select one:
a-the text from your psychology textbook
b-a fact you learned that day
c- something quietly
d- his name
d- his name
The ethical issue surrounding the Terri Schiavo case was whether or not Terri was:

Select one:
a-able to make current medical decisions for herself.
b-more dependent on her parents or on her husband.
c-in a persistent vegetative state or a minimally conscious state.
d-able to vocalize her choices.
c-in a persistent vegetative state or a minimally conscious state.
In order to most effectively alter behavior, subliminal messages should target a person's:

Select one:
a. buying habits.
b. complex actions.
c. emotional state.
d. motivational state.
d. motivational state.
Imagine an experiment in which you are asked to conduct a hands-free mobile phone conversation while in a driving simulator; researchers measure how long it takes you to brake. Results indicate that even though you're not physically holding a phone, people conducting a hands-free conversation take longer to brake than people who are just driving. This experiment demonstrates the effect of:

Select one:
a. dichotic listening
b. change blindness
c. selection inattention
d. inattentional blindness
d. inattentional blindness
Which of the following statements about the perceptual span is FALSE?

Select one:
a. The perceptual span runs in different directions for Hebrew and English readers
b. The perceptual span is smaller for Japanese than English readers
c. The perceptual span is asymmetric
d. The perceptual span extends 15 characters to the left of fixation in English
d. The perceptual span extends 15 characters to the left of fixation in English
Searching for Wally (stripey shirt/blue trousers) hidden in an array of distractors (some wearing stripey shirts; others wearing blue trousers) is an example of a __________ search which is performed ___________.

Select one:
a. Feature; in parallel
b. Conjunction; in parallel
c. Feature; serially
d. Conjunction; serially
d. Conjunction; serially
According to Feature Integration Theory:

Select one:
a. attention is required to process features
b. the pop-out effect occurs for conjunction, but not feature, stimuli
c. conjunctions are processed in parallel, without attention
d. illusory conjunctions reflect a failure to allocate sufficient attention
Feedback
d. illusory conjunctions reflect a failure to allocate sufficient attention
Feedback
Owen and colleagues found that when a comatose woman imagined playing tennis, her brain activity was similar to that of normal individuals imagining the same activity. What does this finding say about the relationship between consciousness and awareness?

Select one:
a-Consciousness is unrelated to awareness.
b-Consciousness is equivalent to awareness.
c-Consciousness is necessary for awareness.
d-Consciousness is not the same thing as awareness.
d-Consciousness is not the same thing as awareness.