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American History Chapter 7 Balancing Nationalism and Sectionalism
Terms in this set (35)
the production of goods in large quantities
social and economic reorganization that took place as machines replaced hand tools and large scale factory production developed
Where did the Industrial Revolution begin?
Who Invented the Cotton Gin?
What did the Cotton Gin do for the south?
It made cotton into a profit and was expanding the land from Appalachian to Mississippi
Created by President Madison, plan was:
developing transportation systems and other internal imporvements
establishing a protective tarriff
resurrecting the national bank (established during Washington's administration under Hamilton's guidance, and then much reduced in influence under Jefferson)
President James Monroe's statement forbidding further colonization in the Americas and declaring that any attempt by a foreign country to colonize would be considered an act of hostility
The issue was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states then free states. The compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state. Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri saying except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states or states without slavery.
The Tariff of 1828
Jackson's supporters strategized to sabotage Adams' presidency. They pushed a proposal through Congress that would raise tariffs on manufactured items such as wool and textiles. Since Adams was a New Englander and increase in tariffs would be supported there, Jacksonians hoped to portray Adams as favoring his home region over the south and west. Jackson did not need the tariff to be elected; got elected without it. But the proposal was still there. The tariff was eventually passed and it caused an outrage in the south. was known as the Tariff of abominationsby the south because southerners felt that it was in place to harm them.
5 Civilized tribes
Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole. they were called the civilized tribes because they adopted some of the colonists' customs and generally got along peacefully with their neighboors.
The system where one is elected and replaces former government officials/workers with members of his/ her own political party or his/ her friends and supporters.
created by John C. Calhoun it stated that, the states'-rights doctrine that a state can refuse to recognize or to enforce a federal law passed by the United States Congress
Trail of Tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
An American political party formed in the 1830s to oppose President Andrew Jackson and the Democrats, stood for protective tariffs, national banking, and federal aid for constructing roads, canals and exchange of goods
Who promoted the American System?
Henry Clay believed it would:
unite Americans economy
nationally excepted money
Funding that went towards highways, which connected different regions by land. Created this road which extended from Cumberland, Maryland to Vandalia, Illinois
a 363 mile long artificial waterway connecting the Hudson River with Lake Erie, built between 1817 and 1825
tariff of 1816
Madison proposed this protective tariff helped American industry by raising the prices of British manufactured goods, which were often cheaper and of higher quality than those produced in the U.S.
Gibbons v. Ogden
This case involved New York trying to grant a monopoly on waterborne trade between New York and New Jersey. Judge Marshal, of the Supreme Court, sternly reminded the state of New York that the Constitution gives Congress alone the control of interstate commerce. Marshal's decision, in 1824, was a major blow on states' rights.
John Quincy Adams
Secretary of State, He served as sixth president under Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the United States Florida in exchange for the United States dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams' work.
a strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country.
Also known as the Transcontinental Treaty of 1819, settled a border dispute in North America between the United States and Spain. The treaty was the result of increasing tensions between the U.S. and Spain regarding territorial rights at a time of weakened Spanish power in the New World. In addition to ceding Florida to the United States, the treaty settled a boundary dispute along the Sabine River in Texas and firmly established the boundary of U.S. territory and claims through the Rocky Mountains and west to the Pacific Ocean in exchange for the U.S. paying residents' claims against the Spanish government up to a total of $5,000,000 and relinquishing its own claims on parts of Texas west of the Sabine River and other Spanish areas under the terms of the Louisiana Purchase.
The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential power. said he came from humble origins and won the election by a land slide.
political party led by Thomas Jefferson; it feared centralized political power, supported states' rights, opposed Hamilton's financial plan, and supported ties with France. It was heavily influenced by a agrarian interests in the southern states. (Jacksonians)
Indian Removal Act
Passed in 1830, authorized Andrew Jackson to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living east of the Mississippi. The treaties enacted under this act's provisions paved the way for the reluctant—and often forcible—emigration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West.
John C. Calhoun
(1830s-40s)Jackson's Vice-President_ Leader of the Fugitive Slave Law, which forced the cooperation of Northern states in returning escaped slaves to the south. He also argued on the floor of the senate that slavery was needed in the south. He argued on the grounds that society is supposed to have an upper ruling class that enjoys the profit of a working lower class.
Jackson V. Calhoun
Jakson wanted centralized government, opposed the Bank of the United States, while Calhoun wanted nullification for states
Bank of the United States
Proposed by Alexander Hamilton as the basis of his economic plan. He proposed a powerful private institution, in which the government was the major stockholder. This would be a way to collect and amass the various taxes collected. It would also provide a strong and stable national currency. Jefferson vehemently opposed the bank; he thought it was un-constitutional. nevertheless, it was created. This issue brought about the issue of implied powers. It also helped start political parties, this being one of the major issues of the day.
State banks where Andrew Jackson placed deposits removed from the federal National Bank. Loyal to democratic party.
President of the Second Bank of the United States; he struggled to keep the bank functioning when President Jackson tried to destroy it.
Martin Van Buren
Served as secretary of state during Andrew Jackson's first term, vice president during Jackson's second term, and won the presidency in 1836
panic of 1837
When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.
William Henry Harrison
Govenor of the Indiana territory, that fought against Tecumseh and the Prophet in the battle of Tippecanoe
Elected Vice President and became the 10th President of the United States when Harrison died 1841-1845, President responsible for annexation of Mexico after receiving mandate from Polk, opposed many parts of the Whig program for economic recovery
South Carolina Rebels
1832- Congress passes a tariff law found unacceptable to SC legislators. Called it unconstitutional, null, and threatened to secede from the Union if custom officials tried to collect duties.
Jackson's beliefs believed that SC's action in declaring a federal law void flouted the will of the people as expressed in the Constitution. He declared their actions treasonous.
Threatened to hang Calhoun and march federal troops into SC to enforce the tariff
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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