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Terms in this set (79)
- Leipzig, Germany.
-1st Branch science.
- Introspective (looking inwards). Training to report elements of experiment
- inner sensations, feelings, images
-Tried to figure out more evolved functions of thoughts and feelings.
-James thought these ideas were adaptive.
- Consciousness enables us to consider our past, adjust our present and plan our future.
-2nd science of psychology.
- Redefined Psychology as "the scientific study of observable behavior
- Behaviorists became one of the 2 major forces in psychology
-3rd science of psychology
-Found Freudian psychology and behaviorism too limiting
- Rather than focusing on meaning of early childhood memories or learning of conditional response, humanistic new attention to ways that current environmental influences can nurture or limit our growth potential and to importance of having our needs for love and acceptance satisfied.
Modern definition of psychology
-Science of behavior and mental processes
- Behavior is anything an organism does
- any action we can observe and record
- mental processes are internal , subjective experiences we infer from behavior
-sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs, feelings
-Emphasized the ways our unconscious thought processes and our emotional responses to childhood experiences affect our behavior
- Explained structuralism and behaviorism
Nature vs. Nurture
-Plato assumed that we inherit character and intelligence and certain ideas that are inborn
- Aristotle countered that there is nothing in the mind that does not first come from the external world through senses
- Rene Descartes disagreed some ideas are irate
-Nurture works on what nature endows
-Used to develop theories
-a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. To be termed scientific, a method of inquiry is commonly based on empirical or measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning.
-This area of psychology is known by a number of titles including behavioral neuroscience, psychobiology, and neuropsychology
-study the relationship between the brain and behavior, such as how the brain and nervous system impact our thoughts, feeling, and moods
- field can be thought of as a combination of basic psychology and neuroscience.
-the largest specialty area in psychology
- psychologists apply psychological principles and research to assess, diagnose, and treat patients with mental and emotional illnesses.
- Clinicians often work in private practices, but many also work in community centers or at universities and colleges.
- focuses on understanding the mental processes of how people think.
-Problem-solving, decision-making, language, intelligence, and attention are just a few of the topics studied by cognitive psychologists
- Cognitive psychologists often use an information-processing model to describe how the mind works, suggesting that the brain stores and processes information much like a computer.
- tendency to believe that we would have foreseen an outcome after we've learned it
-thinking we know more than we do
Tabla Casa (blank slate)
how body and brain create emotions
how nature selects traits
how much genes and environment influence individual differences
- how behavior springs from unconscious drives and desires
how we observe responses
-How we encode, process, store information
How behavior and thinking vary
-cognitive, social, developmental, personality, physiological
- I/O psychology, human factors, school psychology, health psychology.
Counseling, clinical, psychiatry.
in depth observations of one person in hopes of revealing universal principles
observe and record behavior w/o trying to manipulate or control the situation
Survey's: Technique for acquiring self reported attitudes/behaviors
-False consensus effect
movement, learning, attention and emotion
Mood, hunger, sleep, arousal
Alertness and Arousal
Muscle action, learning, memory
"Natural Opiates", Paim Control, and pleasure
diminishes release of neurotransmitters
Executing functions, thinking, planning, organizing, problem solving, emotional.
Memory, understanding, language
the area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body sensations
Perception, making, sense of the world, arithmetic, spelling
Breathing Consciousness, heartbeat, swallowing
cells within the nervous system that transmit information to other nerve cells, muscle, or gland cells
the long threadlike part of a nerve cell along which impulses are conducted from the cell body to other cells.
argued that the mind is a blank slate on which experience writes
the assumption that a relationship exists between two variables that are really not related
is a subset of a statistical population in which each member of the subset has an equal probability of being chosen.
ensures that participants in a cause and effect study are unbiased as it prevents people's history from causing an extraneous variable within the experiment
based on careful examination of facts
a statement that maps one or more empirical measures onto one or more theoretical constructs. (ties the observable to the unobservable. we are interested in the unobservable, but all we have is data which is observable)
a relationship between two variables in which both variables move in tandem.
is a relationship between two variables in which one variable increases as the other decreases, and vice versa.
the variable you have control over, what you can choose and manipulate.
what you measure in the experiment and what is affected during the experiment
the group where the experimental procedures are performed
the group that does not receive treatment by the researchers and is then used as a benchmark to measure how the other tested subjects
segments of the neuron that receive stimulation in order for the cell to become active
a wave of electricity that travels down the axon of neuron
portion of neuron that sends signals
that reduce neural activity and other body functions.
examples of depressants
-barbiturates: Nembutal, Seconal, Amytal
-opiates: morphine, heroine
drugs which intensify neural activity and bodily functions. may cause: dilated pupils, increased breathing and heart rate, increased blood sugar, decreased appetite
examples of stimulants
Caffeine, Nicotine, Amphetamines, Methamphetamine, Cocaine, Ecstasy
outer layer of the cerebrum, plays an important role in consciousness.
language, logic, writing, math, science, speech
music, athletic, art, dance, perception, recognition of faces
the bundle of nerve fibers that connect the left and right hemispheres (right in the center deep in the brain)
the many sections responsible for sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell
connect sensory neurons and motor neurons located in the brain and spinal cord.
chemicals that can cross over to neighboring neurons and activate them
lower than normal levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin
schizophrenia or ADHD
too little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain
the most common neurotransmitter
neurotransmitter linked with muscle movement, attention, arousal, memory, and attention
A gland located at the base of the brain producing hormones that control other glands and which affects metabolism, bone growth and sexual maturity.
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