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Scripture and Its Interpretation ch 6: From Books to Library
Terms in this set (35)
Greek for "revelation"; (1) a genre of Jewish and Christian literature filled with symbolism and visions intended to unveil unseen realities (e.g., heaven and its inhabitants) as well as historical realities (past, present, and future) in order to offer a critique of contemporary political arrangements in light of the coming kingdom of God; (2) a name for the last NT book (Revelation).
From the Greek adjective meaning "hidden"; (1) the books of the Greek OT (Septuagint) not included in the Hebrew canon or the Protestant canon but included in the Catholic and Orthodox canons (see also deuterocanonical; Readable Books); (2) certain early Christian writings not included in the NT (usually "NT Apocrypha").
From the Greek word kanōn, meaning "measuring stick"; (1) a rule, norm, or guide for faith and practice; (2) especially a list, collection, or catalog of Scriptures (sacred writings) that the Jewish and/or Christian communities consider inspired and authoritative for their faith and practice.
Originally, a writing tablet framed in wood (Latin caudex); later, a set of individual sheets of papyrus or parchment bound together as a "book" and protected by a leather or wooden cover.
The name of the last stage of the ancient Egyptian language, written primarily with a modified Greek alphabet; Coptic writings include some of the gnostic Nag Hammadi texts, certain NT apocrypha, and some early translations of the NT.
Council of Trent
A key Roman Catholic counter-Reformational ecumenical council held between 1545 and 1563, whose decisions included adopting the Vulgate and the longer OT canon.
A formal, authoritative summary of basic Christian beliefs. See also Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed; rule of faith.
Dead Sea Scrolls
A series of more than 800 ancient Hebrew and Aramaic manuscripts (and some Greek fragments) of biblical and extrabiblical writings, dating from the third century BCE to the first century CE, and discovered in eleven caves at Qumran, near the Dead Sea, between 1947 and 1956.
Referring to a "second canon," a Roman Catholic designation for the seven books (plus additional portions of Esther and Daniel) from the Septuagint that are not found in the Hebrew canon or in Jerome's Latin Vulgate but are included in the Catholic (and Orthodox) canon.
Epistle (or Letter) of Barnabas
A second-century document included in the Apostolic Fathers, attributed to Barnabas, the companion of the apostle Paul, which uses typology to interpret the OT
A term referring to diverse religious movements of the second and third centuries that were generally dualist, stressed gaining special knowledge as the means to salvation, and often reread the Scriptures as esoteric documents.
"Good news"; (1) the salvific message about Jesus preached by his followers ("the gospel"); (2) a genre of early Christian writing that includes accounts of Jesus' activity and/or teachings, whether canonical or not (e.g., "early Christian gospels"; "the Gospel of Thomas"); (3) one of four such accounts included in the NT canon, usually indicated by an uppercase G (e.g., "the Gospel of Luke"; "the Gospels" as the collection of four).
(1) The ancestors of the Israelite nation (from Abraham and Sarah until the time of Moses); (2) an anonymous Jewish-Christian NT writing usually understood as a homily in letter form.
A general interpretive philosophy, theory, approach, or strategy; hermeneutics: the art and principles of interpretation
The beliefs and practices of Jews ("Judahites," or people of Judah) during and after the period of the Second Temple
The Roman province and territory in Palestine roughly equivalent to the former southern kingdom of Judah.
(1) The Hasmoneans; (2) one or more of the four writings (1-4 Maccabees) from the OT Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha concerned with the Hasmonean era.
Second-century Christian presbyter in Rome who rejected the Scriptures of Israel (the OT) as the work of a lesser god and who also rejected most of the emerging NT canonical texts as a result of his convictions.
From the Hebrew root msr, meaning "hand down, deliver"; the standard edition of the Hebrew text of Israel's Scriptures (Tanak) that is used today, the result of the work of rabbinic scholars (the "Masoretes") in the sixth to ninth centuries CE.
A Christian creed formulated at the First Ecumenical Council at Nicaea (325 CE; the Nicene Creed) and the Second Ecumenical Council at Constantinople (381 CE) to combat various christological and other heresies.
Referring to important religious texts in early Judaism and Christianity that are not included in their scriptural collections (canons); also called parabiblical—literally, "surrounding the Bible"—or extracanonical.
Stories and other significant aspects of religious or cultural heritage passed on orally instead of, or prior to, being written down.
orthodox, orthodoxy, Orthodoxy
(1) Beliefs that conform to the tradition and accepted as authoritative, as opposed to heresy or heterodoxy; (2) when capitalized, a branch of Christendom.
"Five scrolls"; the first five books of the Bible (Genesis-Deuteronomy)
From the Syriac word for "simple"; the authorized Bible of the Syrian Orthodox Church dating from the fourth or fifth century CE
Signifying those strands of Christianity that foreshadowed the later orthodox convictions articulated in the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed.
Latin for rule of faith.
rule of faith
): A summary account of basic Christian teachings eventually represented in the Apostles' Creed (and similar texts) that serves as a standard of orthodoxy and a theological framework for scriptural interpretation.
From the Latin scriptura, "writings"; sacred writings, especially those of Judaism and Christianity.
The temple reconstructed from the ruins of Solomon's temple after the Babylonian exile beginning ca. 520 BCE and destroyed by the Romans in 70 CE.
Second Temple Judaism
The richly varied Judaism(s) of the Second Temple period, ca. 536 BCE-70 CE, also known as "early Judaism."
Traditional name for the most influential Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures, which probably began at Alexandria in Egypt in the third century BCE and was used by both Jews and Christians.
A language closely related to Aramaic used by a large group of ancient Christian churches in the East.
The compilation of the Jewish Mishnah and the Gemara, which appeared in two editions: the Palestinian (ca. 450 CE) and the Babylonian (ca. 550 CE).
Referring to the teaching (or the person) of a late second-century gnostic teacher from Egypt and to his adherents.
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