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_________ remove toxins, metabolic wastes, excess ions from blood.


Kidneys _________ blood volume.


Kidneys regulate _________ make-up of blood.


Kidneys regulate blood pressure via _______.


Kidneys stimulate RBC formation via ___________.


Kidneys ____________ vitamin D to active form.


________ carry urine from kidneys to bladder.


Urinary bladder ________ urine.


_________ drains the urinary bladder.


kidney location= _______________ (posterior to the peritoneum) in the superior lumbar region.

right liver

______ kidney is crowded by ______ and lies slightly under the left kidney.


Ureters, renal blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves enter and exit at the ________.

Ureters renal blood vessels lymphatics nerves

________, _____ _______ ________, ___________, and _______ enter and exit at the hilum.

Supportive tissue

kidneys layers of ___________ _______ =
1. Renal fascia (interior)
2. Perirenal fat capsule
3. Fibrous capsule (exterior)

renal fascia

______ _______ = CT surrounding kidney, anchors kidney in place

perirenal fat capsule

_________ _____ ________ = fatty cushion

fibrous capsule

_________ ________ = prevents spead of infection to kidney


superficial kidney region, lighter in color, rich vascular supply


Inner dark stained layer
• Pyramids
• Papillae
• renal columns

medullary pyramids

striped, or striated, appearance of triangual pryramid of segments of the medulla


= "nipple"- release urine to minor calyx

renal columns

extension of cortical tissue that dip down into medulla of the kidney between the renal pyramids

renal pelvis

a structure shaped like a funnel in the outlet of the kidney into which urine is discharged before passing into the ureter

major calyces

branching channels of the renal pelvis that
-collect urin from minor calyces
-empty urine into the pelvis

minor calyces

the cup shaped areas of the renal pelvis that surround papillae

pelvis ureter

Urine flows fromthe _______ to the _______.


_________ = one of a million tiny filtered structures found in the kidneys that removes wastes from blood and produces urine.


~____ of filtrate is reabsorbed back into blood


____L of filtrate formed daily, but only 0.6-2.0L or urine excreted daily.


180L of filtrate formed daily, but only ___-___L or urine excreted daily.

cortical nephrons cortex secretive

________ ________ =
~85%, are located almost entirely in the ________, amd preform most of the absorptive and ____________ functions of the kidney.

juxamedullary nephrons of henle pyramids urine

__________________ __________ have long loops (__ ______) that extend deep into the ___________ and create the conditions necessary to produce concentrated _______


____________ is a tuft of capillaries

renal tubule bowmans distal proximal

________ ________ = glomerular (_________) capsule, _________ and _________ tubules, and loop of henle


_______ convey urine from kidneys to the bladder

transitional epithelium

mucosa of ureter is ___________ ___________


__________ of ureters = smooth muscles
-contracts in response to stretch


fibrous CT

Proximal Convoluted Tubule

Where in the nephron does most solute reabsorption occur?


Approximately 80% of the energy used for active transport is devoted to the reabsorption of __________.

juxtaglomerular apparatus

The _______________ ___________ is a system that regulates the rate of filtrate formation and systemic blood pressure


the volume of filtrate created by the kidneys per minute


fluid and small solutes that passes from the blood through the capillary walls of the glomeruli of the kidney

Glomerular Hydrostatic Pressure

GFR regulation mechanisms primarily affect __________ __________ __________

glomerular capillaries

hydrostatic pressure within the __________ ___________ produces net outward movement of fluid (like in other capillaries)

higher one-way

Unique to glomerular capillaries, HPg is consistently _______ than other capillaries (~55 mm Hg), which ensures the ____-____ movement of fluid and solutes out of the glomerulus under normal conditions

myogenic mechanism and tubuloglomerular feedback

Which of the following are mechanisms of intrinsic control of glomerular filtration (renal autoregulation)?
-myogenic mechanism and tubuloglomerular feedback
-tubuloglomerular feedback and the renin-angiotensin mechanism
-sympathetic nervous system control and the renin-angiotensin mechanism
-myogenic mechanism and sympathetic nervous system control

smooth afferent

The myogenic mechanism is mediated by ________ muscle within the ________ arteriole

macula densa JGA

tubuloglomerular feedback is mediated by _______ _______ cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus (____).

tubuloglomerular feedback

The JGA is a region of the nephron where the afferent arteriole and its associated tubule are closely apposed. This anatomical arrangement allows macula densa cells to adjust GFR according to the NaCl concentration in filtrate.


This anatomical arrangement allows macula densa cells to adjust _____ according to the _____ concentration in filtrate. This is called tubuloglomerular feedback because it allows the contents of the tubules (tubulo-) to affect the glomerular filtration rate.

myogenic mechanism maintain systemic

By regulating afferent arteriole diameter, the _________ ___________ affects HPg and therefore GFR. Under normal physiological conditions, this intrinsic control works to ________ GFR despite moderate changes in _________ blood pressure.

quickly less high

After glomerular filtration, NaCl is actively reabsorbed at many locations along the renal tubule. If the filtrate is moving through the tubule _______, _____ reabsorption is possible, so more NaCl gets left behind. This means that at the JGA, the NaCl concentration within the filtrate will be ______.

decreasing lower GFR

High NaCl concentration in the filtrate at the JGA indicates that GFR is too high. By ___________ the diameter of the arteriole delivering blood to the glomerulus, HPg is decreased, resulting in ______ ____.

decreases renin vasoconstriction aldosterone

When systemic blood pressure ________, granular cells release ______ which ultimately causes the formation of angiotensin II. Angiotensin II causes widespread ______________ of systemic arterioles and the increase of blood volume due to ___________ release.

renin-angiotensin mechanism

Granular cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) regulate GFR through which mechanism?


what hormone is required for facultative water reabsorption in the collecting ducts?


Which part of the brain controls the micturition reflex?

internal urethral sphincter

The __________ keeps the urethra closed when urine is not being passed from the bladder and prevents leaking between voiding.

proximal convoluted tubule

Which of the three parts of the renal tubule is formed by cuboidal epithelial cells bordered by dense microvilli?

producing the hormones melanin and oxytocin

Which of the following is NOT a function of the kidneys?
metabolizing vitamin D to its active form
gluconeogenesis during prolonged fasting
producing the hormones melanin and oxytocin
maintaining the proper balance between water and salts and between acids and bases


Which vessel is present in the arterial pathway as blood flows into the kidney but NOT present in the venous pathway exiting the kidney?

cortical radiate arteries

Which vessels supply the cortical tissue of the kidney with blood?

decreased osmolality of extracellular fluids

Which of the following promotes the formation of dilute urine?
increased number of aquaporins present in the collecting duct
large amounts of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) released from the posterior pituitary
increased osmolality of extracellular fluids
decreased osmolality of extracellular fluids

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