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25 Urinary System

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Kidneys
_________ remove toxins, metabolic wastes, excess ions from blood.
regulate
Kidneys _________ blood volume.
chemical
Kidneys regulate _________ make-up of blood.
renin
Kidneys regulate blood pressure via _______.
erythropoietin
Kidneys stimulate RBC formation via ___________.
metabolize
Kidneys ____________ vitamin D to active form.
ureters
________ carry urine from kidneys to bladder.
stores
Urinary bladder ________ urine.
urethra
_________ drains the urinary bladder.
retroperitoneal
kidney location= _______________ (posterior to the peritoneum) in the superior lumbar region.
right liver
______ kidney is crowded by ______ and lies slightly under the left kidney.
hilum
Ureters, renal blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves enter and exit at the ________.
Ureters renal blood vessels lymphatics nerves
________, _____ _______ ________, ___________, and _______ enter and exit at the hilum.
Supportive tissue
kidneys layers of ___________ _______ =
1. Renal fascia (interior)
2. Perirenal fat capsule
3. Fibrous capsule (exterior)
renal fascia
______ _______ = CT surrounding kidney, anchors kidney in place
perirenal fat capsule
_________ _____ ________ = fatty cushion
fibrous capsule
_________ ________ = prevents spead of infection to kidney
cortex
superficial kidney region, lighter in color, rich vascular supply
medulla
Inner dark stained layer
• Pyramids
• Papillae
• renal columns
medullary pyramids
striped, or striated, appearance of triangual pryramid of segments of the medulla
papillae
= "nipple"- release urine to minor calyx
renal columns
extension of cortical tissue that dip down into medulla of the kidney between the renal pyramids
renal pelvis
a structure shaped like a funnel in the outlet of the kidney into which urine is discharged before passing into the ureter
major calyces
branching channels of the renal pelvis that
-collect urin from minor calyces
-empty urine into the pelvis
minor calyces
the cup shaped areas of the renal pelvis that surround papillae
pelvis ureter
Urine flows fromthe _______ to the _______.
nephron
_________ = one of a million tiny filtered structures found in the kidneys that removes wastes from blood and produces urine.
99%
~____ of filtrate is reabsorbed back into blood
180
____L of filtrate formed daily, but only 0.6-2.0L or urine excreted daily.
0.6-2.0
180L of filtrate formed daily, but only ___-___L or urine excreted daily.
cortical nephrons cortex secretive
________ ________ =
~85%, are located almost entirely in the ________, amd preform most of the absorptive and ____________ functions of the kidney.
juxamedullary nephrons of henle pyramids urine
__________________ __________ have long loops (__ ______) that extend deep into the ___________ and create the conditions necessary to produce concentrated _______
glomerulus
____________ is a tuft of capillaries
renal tubule bowmans distal proximal
________ ________ = glomerular (_________) capsule, _________ and _________ tubules, and loop of henle
ureters
_______ convey urine from kidneys to the bladder
transitional epithelium
mucosa of ureter is ___________ ___________
Muscularis
__________ of ureters = smooth muscles
-contracts in response to stretch
adventitia
fibrous CT
Proximal Convoluted Tubule
Where in the nephron does most solute reabsorption occur?
Sodium
Approximately 80% of the energy used for active transport is devoted to the reabsorption of __________.
juxtaglomerular apparatus
The _______________ ___________ is a system that regulates the rate of filtrate formation and systemic blood pressure
GFR
the volume of filtrate created by the kidneys per minute
filtrate
fluid and small solutes that passes from the blood through the capillary walls of the glomeruli of the kidney
Glomerular Hydrostatic Pressure
GFR regulation mechanisms primarily affect __________ __________ __________
glomerular capillaries
hydrostatic pressure within the __________ ___________ produces net outward movement of fluid (like in other capillaries)
higher one-way
Unique to glomerular capillaries, HPg is consistently _______ than other capillaries (~55 mm Hg), which ensures the ____-____ movement of fluid and solutes out of the glomerulus under normal conditions
myogenic mechanism and tubuloglomerular feedback
Which of the following are mechanisms of intrinsic control of glomerular filtration (renal autoregulation)?
-myogenic mechanism and tubuloglomerular feedback
-tubuloglomerular feedback and the renin-angiotensin mechanism
-sympathetic nervous system control and the renin-angiotensin mechanism
-myogenic mechanism and sympathetic nervous system control
smooth afferent
The myogenic mechanism is mediated by ________ muscle within the ________ arteriole
macula densa JGA
tubuloglomerular feedback is mediated by _______ _______ cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus (____).
tubuloglomerular feedback
The JGA is a region of the nephron where the afferent arteriole and its associated tubule are closely apposed. This anatomical arrangement allows macula densa cells to adjust GFR according to the NaCl concentration in filtrate.
GFR NaCl
This anatomical arrangement allows macula densa cells to adjust _____ according to the _____ concentration in filtrate. This is called tubuloglomerular feedback because it allows the contents of the tubules (tubulo-) to affect the glomerular filtration rate.
myogenic mechanism maintain systemic
By regulating afferent arteriole diameter, the _________ ___________ affects HPg and therefore GFR. Under normal physiological conditions, this intrinsic control works to ________ GFR despite moderate changes in _________ blood pressure.
quickly less high
After glomerular filtration, NaCl is actively reabsorbed at many locations along the renal tubule. If the filtrate is moving through the tubule _______, _____ reabsorption is possible, so more NaCl gets left behind. This means that at the JGA, the NaCl concentration within the filtrate will be ______.
decreasing lower GFR
High NaCl concentration in the filtrate at the JGA indicates that GFR is too high. By ___________ the diameter of the arteriole delivering blood to the glomerulus, HPg is decreased, resulting in ______ ____.
decreases renin vasoconstriction aldosterone
When systemic blood pressure ________, granular cells release ______ which ultimately causes the formation of angiotensin II. Angiotensin II causes widespread ______________ of systemic arterioles and the increase of blood volume due to ___________ release.
renin-angiotensin mechanism
Granular cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) regulate GFR through which mechanism?
ADH
what hormone is required for facultative water reabsorption in the collecting ducts?
pons
Which part of the brain controls the micturition reflex?
internal urethral sphincter
The __________ keeps the urethra closed when urine is not being passed from the bladder and prevents leaking between voiding.
proximal convoluted tubule
Which of the three parts of the renal tubule is formed by cuboidal epithelial cells bordered by dense microvilli?
producing the hormones melanin and oxytocin
Which of the following is NOT a function of the kidneys?
metabolizing vitamin D to its active form
gluconeogenesis during prolonged fasting
producing the hormones melanin and oxytocin
maintaining the proper balance between water and salts and between acids and bases
Segmental
Which vessel is present in the arterial pathway as blood flows into the kidney but NOT present in the venous pathway exiting the kidney?
cortical radiate arteries
Which vessels supply the cortical tissue of the kidney with blood?
decreased osmolality of extracellular fluids
Which of the following promotes the formation of dilute urine?
increased number of aquaporins present in the collecting duct
large amounts of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) released from the posterior pituitary
increased osmolality of extracellular fluids
decreased osmolality of extracellular fluids