History Vocabulary(Civil_Rights_Movement)

Terms over the Civil Rights Movement
The Civil Rights Movement
Starts during the era of WWII, blacks couldn't participate in the Marines, Navy, or Air Corp--they were given secondary jobs instead
de facto segregation
"concerning fact." In law, it often means "in practice but not necessarily ordained by law" or "in practice or actuality, but not officially established--'De facto' racial discrimination and segregation in the USA during the 1950s and 1960s was simply discrimination that was not segregation by law
de jure segregation
is an expression that means "concerning law", as contrasted with de facto, which means "concerning fact". The terms de jure(in law) and de facto are used instead of "in law" and "in practice"--
started in 1908, shifted towards fighting in the legal sector of equality
(Congress of Racial Racial Equality)focused on voting-fought against various voting issues; threats for blacks voting: KKK threats, e.t.c
(Southern Christian Leadership Conference) used christian pricipals in order to fight segregation--nonviolent, consisted of black prechers, and had alot of influence
(Student Nonviolent Coordination Committee) did most of the marches in the movement--consisted of young adults in college
Plessy v. Ferguson
"seperate but equal"
Morgan v. Virginia (1946)
segregation within interstate buses placed an undue burden on the gov. and interstate commerce
Brown v. Board of Education
overturned segregation in schools--a girl named Linda lived three blocks from an all white school had to go to a black school aross town--the mother sued for inconvience--the case was won and the schools became integreted--though, not directly after
Thurgood Marshall
leading attorney in the Brown v. Board of Education case
Earl Warren
Supreme Court Chief Justice, legalized abortion for women--later on impeached due to being framed as a communist
Doll Test
two dolls were presented one black and one white-- young children atleast 5 years of age were asked to point to the doll which they thought was good--most children both black and white both pointed to the white doll-- used in the Brown v. Board of Education case--insured that segregation within the school system wasn't good for black children due to psychological effects
Greensburo, Atlanta, Nashville--black and white college students would sit in resturants at the bar and get food poured over their heads
Freedom Rides
demonstration that was coordinated with interstate buses(starts in Washington-ends in New Orleans) Happens in the south due to legal segregation--bus riders experience very brutal beatings
Cisis at Little Rock
nine black students wanted to go to Central H.S(all white highschool), intially the gov. gets the national guard to make sure the students don't enter the school--Eisnhower gets the students inside the school while the National Guard portects them
Govenor Faubus
Gov. of Arkansas, stated that he wasn't going to intergrate schools, called the national guard for the nine blacks students not to enter Central H.S
President Eisenhower
was against segergation made nonsegregation recommendation that soon turned into laws
16th Street Baptist Church
occured around '62, bomb planted in the basement of church during Sunday School, kids were killed from ages 5-8, was planned by the KKK
Birmingham Campaign
lasted 4 days(marches)--was a strategic movement organized by the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) to bring attention to the unequal treatment that black Americans endured in Birmingham, Alabama
"Bull" Connor
a police chief of Birmingham Police Department, gave orders to do whatever is necessarty to break up the protest--due to unwanted media attention--used fire extinguishers, dogs, and tanks
Children's Crusade
MLK used school children and alled w/ Birmingham radio-- due to thoughts of danger from elders, the childern were not allowed to go--600 kids paticipated from 3- 11th grade---very successful
March on Washington
MLK delievered his "I Have A Dream" speech--the march revealed that the civil rights movement had much support
Freedom Summer
campaign that occured in Mississippi--tried to register black people to vote--42% of blacks were living in MI--SNCC established the movement
Selma March
Selma had a big populationn, but few blacks were voting--King coordinated the march from Selma to Montgomery
George Wallace
Govener of Alabama during this time--gives oders to stop the Selma March
Bloody Sunday
alot of marchers from the Selma March were brutaly beaten, and this gained media attention
Ralph Albernathy
was a leader of the American Civil Rights Movement, a minister, and a close associate of Martin Luther King, Jr. in the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.
Fred Shuttlesworth
coordinated help in the Birmingham Campaign--was a U.S. civil rights activist who led the fight against segregation and other forms of racism as a minister in Birmingham, Alabama. He was a co-founder of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Malcom X
considered radical, made controversal statements, white people are from the devil-born christian conveted to musilm--inspired Black Power
Civil Rights Act 1964
Got rid of racial segregation in all areas of society
Voting Rights Act 1965
ensured the right to vote