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Terms in this set (30)
3 main components
desktop study, walk over survey, detailed site investigation
how is information gathered for a desktop survey?
existing information from OS maps, aerial photographs, geological maps and service records
what information does a desktop survey include?
potential landslide risks, topography, former historical use of the site, ground conditions, hidden services
what is included in a walk over survey?
site boundaries, historical features and properties, topography, key features
what is included in the soil investigation?
types of soil - chemical or physical, the soil properties such as strength and compressibility
what two methods are used to test soil samples?
trial pits and visual inspection for depths of less that 3m, boreholes for depths of 3 to 30m
what should a construction site have?
security, access and traffic routes, storage and waste facilities, welfare and office facilities, temporary works, hardstanding
construction project cycle
strategic definition, preparation and brief, concept design, developed design, technical design, construction, handover, use
what is included in a performance appraisal?
risk assessment, feasibility study, environmental audit
why would you demolish a building?
to make space for a new development, change the use of the existing structure, structural and aesthetic changes, for public safety
what are the 3 steps of the demolition process?
survey (desktop and on site survey), statutory notices, demolition
what are some hazards associated with demolition?
uncontrollable collapse, dust inhalation, asbestos, release of contaminants from building, electrocution and fire hazards, falls from height, noise and vibration
what are the 4 main types of demolition?
hand demolition, mechanical demolition, deliberate collapse, explosion/implosion
hand demolition key points
hand tools only, slow and high risk, reverse order of construction, one storey at a time, requires guardrails, HAVs
mechanical demolition key points
fast and efficient, requires lots of space and flat surfaces, skilled machine operatives
deliberate collapse key points
removal of key structural members, suitable for bridge/chimneys, heavily controlled secure sites, lots of room required
explosion/implosion key points
efficient and inexpensive, requires expert explosive engineers, may require traffic control, suitable for urban areas
temporary dewatering methods
trenches, sump pump, well points, deep wells, ejectors, electro osmosis
permanent dewatering methods
cut of walls or wells such as sheet piling and concrete diaphragm walls
coarse soils such as gravelly sands, water seeps into exaction, collected by pumps and then removed, cheap and easy, use for basements and when groundwater is above foundations
depths below 6m, higher permeability soils, installed and operational in short period of time, used for pipeline trench excavations
deep depths of 10-50m, lowers groundwater level using several wells, higher permeability soils
inefficient at depth greater than 50m, low permeability soils, use pressure draw air and water out simultaneously, drawdowns up to 30m
can dewater and strengthen soil, used in low permeability soils, uses potential difference to cause water flow
uses of permanent dewatering
lower groundwater to prevent uplift loads on structures, control predicted groundwater rises, stop groundwater contamination, stabilise slopes, reduce leakage into underground structures
3 main types of piling
driven piles, percussion bored, rotary bored
lengths up to 18m, reinforcement necessary to withstand handling loads, pre cast as per specification, causes vibrations which could affect foundations of nearby structures, heavy equipment necessary, can improve baring capacity of granular soils by compacting it
any diameter or length, less damage to soil and no vibrations so good for urban areas, suitable for soils with low permeability, longer process than driven piles
least damage to ground, suitable for all soils but if too loose excavation could collapse, simple and efficient process, lengths up to 70m
types of foundations
strip foundations, pad foundations, raft foundations, pile foundations
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Construction Technology U 5
Construction technology 241 test 2
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