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Bricker Semester Test
Terms in this set (113)
structure of mitochondria
has an outer and inner membrane, has own DNA; has cristae that folds in on itself.
structure of chloroplast
has an outer and inner membrane, has own DNA; has sacks stacked on top of each other
function of mitcohondria
produces ATP; cellular respiration
function of chloroplast
produces ATP; photosynthesis
Is cellular respiration endergonic or exergonic? Explain the term.
Exergonic - a reaction that allows a net release of energy.
the process of converting pyruvic acid to lactic acid is
lactic acid fermentation
are lactic acid and alcohol fermentation aerobic or anaerobic
during glycolysis, glucose is at first broken down into two molecules of _________. There is anet gain of _______ ATP
pyruvic acid; 2
the process of converting pyruvic acid to ethyl alcohol is called
explain photosynthesis as an energy conversion pathway
light energy from the sun is used to turn carbon dioxide and water into sugar and oxygen.
explain cellular respiration as an energy conversion pathway
the chemical breakdown of glucose to replase energy, occurs in mitochondria.
the net gain of ATP per molecule of glucose going through cellular respiration (using oxygen) is
compare and contrast aerobic and anaerobic respiration
aerobic uses oxygen while anaerobic does not.
the equation for cellular respiration
C6H1206 + 6O2 -----> 6CO2 +6H20 + ATP
glycolysis occurs in the ____________________ of the cell and does NOT require oxygen so it is termed a(n) ___________________ process.
explain the name "Krebs Cycle"
named after Hans Krebs
explain the name "Citric Acid Cycle"
first substance produced
where is the electron transport chain of cellular respiration located within a cell?
in the cristae of the mitochondria
where does the citric acid cycle occur in a cell
the mitochondrion of a cell
before fermentation ________________ occurs and ____________ ATP will be produced.
name the two types of fermentation
alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation
yeast does this process
lactic acid fermentation
many organisms including humans does this process
alcohol fermentation: the conversion of pyruvic acid to ___________________ and __________________
ethyl alcohol ; carbon dioxide
lacid acid fermentation: conversion of pyruvic acid to _______________________
lactic acid fermentation is important in the making of ____________________
explain when humans go through lactic acid fermentation
humans do this when oxygen levels are low and energy is required
when there is a build up of lactic acid in the muscles, what happens?
muscle fatigue and a burning sensation
virus will go into the host cell, take control, and destroy the host
Attachment - tail fibers of T4 phage will attach to cell wall of bacteria (recept or site)
stage 1 of lytic cycle
Entry - enzymes on tail fibers digest cell wall and sheath injects nucleic acid into the host cell
stage 2 of lytic cycle
Replication - virus instructs the host to produce new viruses
stage 3 of lytic cycle
Assembly - combines all parts of the virus
stage 4 of lytic cycle
Release - host produces new enzymes, the cell wall weakens and then bursts open
stage 5 of lytic cycle
the virus goes in the host cell and then goes dormant
entry into host is similar to lytic cycle
step 1 of lysogenic cycle
viral nucleic acid will attach to host cell's DNA (prophage)
step 2 of lysogenic cycle
bacterium reproduces and copies viral nucleic acid, sending the virus to the new organism
step 3 of lysogenic cycle
a stress factor will trigger the virus to become active and destroys the host cell
step 4 of lysogenic cycle
how are viruses considered alive
they have rNA or DNA
how are viruses considered non-living
they do not carry life functions
AIDS is a retrovirus. What is a retrovirus?
a virus that suppress the immune system.
what is used to prevent a virus?
evaluate the medical and economic importance of viruses.
viruses can target and destroy cancer cells, transport nucleic acid into the body safely.
what are the two kingdoms that contain bacteria
kingdom Archaebacteria and kingdom Bacteria
Why do we have two separate kingdoms of bacteria
some bacteria are very unusual and live in harsh environments.
explain the medical and economic importance of bacteria
bacteria can be decomposers, nitrogen fixers for plants, and they can produce vitamins that the body cannot.
two sphere shaped linked together
chain of 3 or more sphere bacteria
cluster of sphere shaped bacteria
four sphere shape in a square
two rod shaped linked together
3 or more rod shaped
bacteria needs oxygen
bacteria does not need oxygen
survives with or without oxygen
explain how bacteria moves
some bacteria uses flagellum, secretes slime, and flip themselves along
if crystal violet is added to bacteria and the cell wall turns purple, the bacteria is _________________________
if safranine is added and the cell wall turns red, the bacteria is ________________
is gram negative or gram positive harder to kill?
how do we treat bacterial infections
explain the ways bacteria obtains food
make their food by photosynthesis/chemosynthesis or obtain food.
fungi are similar to plants in that their cells are surrounded by ____________
fungi are similar to animals in that they don't make their own food and are considered _____________
the substance in the cell wall of a fungus that is found in the exoskeletons of some animals is
the tubes that make up a fungus are called
Hyphae tubes are divided by cross walls termed ______________
the body of the fungus is called a
the mycelium is a mass of interwoven
are fungi autotrophic or heterotrophic?
are fungi prokaryotic or eukarytoic
2 medical impacts of fungi
fungi causes plant and animal diseases such as corn smut, which destroys corn kernals. fungi also causes athlete's foot which infects the areas between the toes.
2 economic impacts of fungi
fungi recycle nutrients in the ecosystem by breaking down the bodies and wastes of other organisms. without the decay, energy-rich compounds that organisms accumulate would be lost forever.
the structure in a bread mold that first forms after spores have been deposited is _________________
Hyphae tubes will send out short root like structures called
Rhizoids release _________ inot the bread and absorb the _________________________________
bread; digestive bread
When the bread mold has consumed the entire piece of bread, it will send up a ______________________ that releases ____________________________
fruiting body; spores
the two symbiotic relationships in kingdom fungi are
lichin and mycorrhizae
when both organisms benefit in a relationship, it is termed
a lichen is a relationship between _______________ and ________________
green algae; fungi
green algae contributes __________________
fungi contributes ______________
a mycorrhize is a relationship between ________________ and ______________
plant roots; fungi
amoeba feeds by
the amoeba moves towards the food and an indentation forms on the __________________
the food becomes trapped in the indentation and the _________________________ closes around it
the food is then digested within the _________________________
any type of waste product is removed by
the waste attaches to the _______________ which breaks open and waste is released
explain in detail how an amoeba moves
by amoeboid movement; the ecto/endoplasm flows and pushes against the cell membrane, making the membrane project outwards which forms a pseudopod
an example of an animal like protist
amoeba; moves like animals do
example of plant like protist
euglena; has chlorophyll in the cholorplast and it goes through photosynthesis
example of fungus like protist
mushroom; produces spores and decompose dead matter
medical and economical importance of protists
decomposes matter and can be used to treat diseases
what causes a red tide
what occurs during a red tide
the poison produced by dinoflagellates kills thousands of fish.
caused by Plasmodium; female Anopheles mosquitos carries the disease; severe chills and fevers
African sleeping sicknes
caused by Trypanosoma; the bite of a tse tse fly carries the disease; losing consciousness and lapsing into a deep or fatal sleep
caused by Entamoeba; parasite lives in the intestines and is passed out in feces where water and food supply is unsanitized; collapse of intestines
caused by poor sanitation; severe diarrhea and digestive problems
causes Leishmaniacyst; transmitted into the body by a sandfly; characterized by skin sores
Uses for Diatomaceous earth
used in toothpaste, scouring powders, and paints to mark lines on highways
How is diatomaceous earth formed
piled up shells of diatoms
uses for algae
used to treat stomach ulcers, high blood presure, and arthritis; also used a s a thickening agent in foods such as ice cream; used to make plastics, waxes and paints
how does the parameicum, amoeba, and euglena reproduce
asexually by binary fission
the paramecium reproduces by ______________
two paramecium joins the ____________
once joined in the oral groove, the paramecium will produce ________ new _________
How many micronuclei die in the process of conjugation?
What happens after the 3 micronuclei die in conjugation?
The paramecium will exchange 1 micronucleus and a new macronucleus is formed.
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