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In cases of noncommunicating hydrocephalus, why does excess cerebrospinal fluid accumulate?

An obstruction is present in the aqueduct of Sylvius or other channel

All of the following are typical signs of hydrocephalus in the neonate EXCEPT:

vomiting, headache, and paralysis

The best description of a myelomeningocele is:

herniation of the meninges, CSF, and spinal cord or nerves through a vertebral defect

How is the presence of spina bifida diagnosed?

prenatally by ultrasound or detection of AFP in maternal blood or amniotic fluid

Which of the following applies to cerebral palsy?

nonprogressive brain damage to the fetus or neonate

Which of the following is characteristic of generalized seizures?

the uncontrolled discharge of neurons in both hemispheres

From the following, choose the two events (in correct sequence) that immediately follow the aura during a tonic-clonic event:

loss of consciousness, then the tonic stage

How would a seizure consisting of bizarre or inappropriate activity be classified?

a psychomotor seizure

What does the clonic stage of a seizure consist of?

alternating contractions and relaxation of skeletal muscles

What characteristic is common to all individuals with cerebral palsy?

a form of motor disability

Which of the following is characteristic of multiple sclerosis?

remissions and exacerbations

Which statement does NOT apply to the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis?

progressive random degeneration of peripheral nerves

Which of the following are common early signs of multiple sclerosis?

tremors, weakness in the legs, visual problems

Which of the following applies to Parkinson's disease?

Onset occurs in men and women over 60 years of age.

What is the pathophysiologic change in Parkinson's disease?

degeneration of the basal nuclei with a deficit of dopamine

Which of the following are common early manifestations of Parkinson's disease?

tremors at rest in the hands and difficulty initiating voluntary movements

In which type of neuron is progressive degeneration occurring with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)?

upper and lower motor neurons

Which of the following statements does NOT apply to myasthenia gravis?

Dementia develops in the later stage.

Which statement applies to Huntington's disease? It:

presents with choreiform movements in the upper body and decreased ability to concentrate

What are the characteristic changes in the brain with Alzheimer's disease?

cortical atrophy with plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, impairing conduction

Which disease is associated with excessive dopamine secretion, decreased gray matter in the temporal lobes, and abnormal hippocampal cells in the brain?


In which disorders do biochemical abnormalities involving the neurotransmitters in the brain occur?

1. bipolar disorder
2. schizophrenia
3. Huntington's disease

Which of the following are typical characteristics associated with schizophrenia?

disorganized thought processes, short attention span, delusions

What is the typical initial effect of a herniated intervertebral disc at the L4 to L5 level?

lower back pain radiating down the leg

What causes a herniated intervertebral disc?

a protrusion of the nucleus pulposus through the annulus fibrosis

Which of the following dietary supplements has reduced the incidence of spina bifida in recent years?

folic acid

Which of the following is the most common cause of brain damage in children with cerebral palsy?


The ataxic form of cerebral palsy results from damage to the:


Which of the following is used both to confirm the diagnosis and classify seizures?


Which statement does NOT apply to status epilepticus?

This condition occurs only in idiopathic seizures.

Which type of seizure commonly occurs in children?

generalized absence

All of the following may precipitate a seizure EXCEPT:

severe acidosis

Which of the following is NOT a typical effect of advanced Parkinson's disease?

loss of vision

Which of the following is a typical early sign of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)?

weakness and muscle atrophy in upper limbs

Which of the following classes of drugs may provide temporary improvement in cases of myasthenia gravis?

anticholinesterase agents

Which of the following are typical early signs of Alzheimer's disease?

1. behavioral changes
2. reduced ability to reason and problem solve

Which of the following is NOT considered to be a common contributing factor to AIDS dementia?

development of arteriosclerosis

Communicating hydrocephalus causes increased intracranial pressure because of:

failure of the subarachnoid to absorb CSF

Failure of the spinous processes to fuse but without herniation of the meninges is called:

spina bifida occulta

Which statement is TRUE about amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)?

Cognitive function remains normal.

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is caused by:

infection in the brain by a prion

The defective gene for Huntington's disease can be detected in carriers.


Which statement is TRUE about the condition depression?

It is classified as a mood disorder.
It is marked by periods of sadness, hopelessness and inability to concentrate.

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