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40 terms

Sociology Chapter 1 Quiz

The corners of life that people occupy such as jobs, income, education, gender, age, and race are referred to as the social imperative
According to the principles of symbolic interactionism, symbols not only allow relationships to exist, they also allow society to exist
Jane Addams
Because of her outstanding contributions to social reform, as demostrated in her work as co-founder of Hull House, ____ was a co-winner of the nobel peace prize
a framework or context from which to view the meaning of the change
According to symbolic interactionists, the deciding factor that determines if change in society is good or bad requires ______
economics, religion
Karl Marx believed that ____ was the central for for social change, which Max Weber believed that ____ was the force most responsible for social change
Sue is an expert in nonverbal interaction
Sue is an expert in interpreting gestures, silence, the use of space, and expressions people make in their daily interactions. In view of this, how would Sue's expertise be defined?
Karl Marx
The social thinker of the 19th century who predicted that there would be a classless society once the working class united and began a revolution was ________.
the French Revolution
What was the social event that most influenced Auguste Comte to explore patterns within society and become interested in what holds society together?
social Darwinism
The notion that only the fittest members of society deserve to survive and that social programs to help the poor will ultimately weaken the social order is a doctrine known as ________.
social location
When sociologists' group people into categories based on their age, gender, educational level, job, and income, they are trying to determine ________.
According to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, language is nothing more than common sense expressed in words and gestures.
Culture becomes the lens through which we perceive and evaluate what is going on around us.
A person receiving a positive sanction would be expected to maintain the behavior that he or she exhibited when receiving the sanction.
Culture is taken for granted by members of society who share it.
Anthropologist Ralph Linton said, "The last thing a fish would ever notice would be water." What does this imply about culture?
language creates ways of thinking and perceiving
Anthropologists Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf concluded that ________.
When a group has a distinctive way of looking at life, but at the same time its values and norms reflect the dominant culture of its society, the group would be considered a(n) ________.
America is a pluralistic society.
People from all walks of life, races, religions, and ethnic groups participate in the U.S. legislative process. In view of this, which term BEST describes American society?
new technology
The emerging tools and the skills needed to use them, which have a significant impact on social life, are called ________.
An emerging value in the U.S. that emphasizes taking time to go to the spa and weekend getaway vacations is an example of ________.
cultural leveling
In recent years, cultures have become more similar to each other as a result of travel and communication. Sociologists use the term "________" to describe this process.
Booker T. Washington was the first African American to earn a doctorate degree from Harvard University.
the scientific method
What is the use of objective and systematic observation to test theories, one that is often employed by sociologists?
Applying the scientific method to the social world is called empiricism.
Herbert Spencer believed the most capable and intelligent members of a society would survive while the weak and less capable would die, thus improving society, in a master plan he called "the survival of the fittest."
symbolic interactionists
Sociologists who analyze how social life depends on the ways that people define themselves and others are most likely ________.
conflict theorists and functionalists
Which groups of social theorists would focus most on macro-level analysis when examining patterns of society?
Research should be value free.
How should a sociologist's values affect his or her research, according to Max Weber?
Ethnocentrism is purely a negative trait with no redeeming qualities.
Culture becomes the lens through which we perceive and evaluate what is going on around us.
There is nothing "natural" about material or nonmaterial culture.
By definition, subcultures are a threat to the mainstream culture.
When the Mormons first established their settlement in Utah, they would have been classified a counterculture because of their belief in polygyny.
Groups are more prone to changing their material culture before they change their nonmaterial culture.
Cultural lag refers to a situation in which elements of nonmaterial culture (such as norms and values) change, but elements of material culture (such as technology) do not.
Language, beliefs, values, norms, behavior, material objects, and technology that are passed from one generation to the next by members of society describe ________.
allows human experience to be cumulative.
The idea that language allows us to pass ideas, knowledge, and attitudes to the next generation shows how language ________.
a value cluster
Americans usually recognize hard work, education, and material comfort as desired qualities. Where one of these qualities is found, the other two also apply. This is an example of ________.
Lamont is engaged in value contradiction.
Lamont believes in democracy and equality, and when asked to describe himself he cites his appreciation for people of all races and ethnic heritages. But at the same time, Lamont believes women should not be in the armed services and he avoids taking courses from female professors. In view of this, which statement BEST describes Lamont?
cultural diffusion
Within a few blocks in midtown Manhattan, you can purchase a bagel with cream cheese, a hot dog, a steak, a polish sausage, or a pizza, as well as chow mein, lamb curry, sushi, lasagna, falafels, chicken couscous, enchiladas, and a host of ethnic specialties. This range of culinary possibilities illustrates the process of ________.
cultural leveling
McDonald's sells Quarter Pounders in Tokyo, Moscow, Paris, Berlin, and practically every other major city in the world. Mickey Mouse and Fred Flintstone are among the most popular cartoon figures in Mexico. These are examples of ________.