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The feeding structure characteristic of molluscs that looks like a tongue with teeth is called a:


Gas exchange in plants occurs through structures called:


A mature ovary, specialized as a vessel that houses and protects seeds, is a:


Pine trees are included in a group of plants called the:


You find a small, elongated animal embedded in sand with one end sticking out. It has segmental musculature, a coelom, a series of pores on either side of the body, and a complete digestive tract with an anus located partway down the body. This animal is:


In general, we can say that fluids are:

pushed along in phloem sap and pulled along in xylem sap

What is an essential macronutrient for plants and is obtained directly from the atmosphere?


What is a characteristic of the phylum Arthropoda?

jointed appendages

What is in the group Osteichthyes?

bony fish

Angiosperms disperse their seeds by producing:

fleshy, edible fruits that are consumed by animals which defecate the seeds; seeds that catch the wind; seeds that sometimes attach to animals

What group has similar segments over most of its body?


What structure is found in plant AND animal cells?


What is the first distinctively hominin trait to appear in the fossil record?

upright walking

What character is typically associated with bilateral symmetry?


What is NOT a requirement for true multicellularity?


The body form of a sea anemone is called a:


How do sugars move from one sieve-tube cell to the next?

by flowing along with water through perforations in the sieve plate

Individual fungal filaments are called:


A bilaterally symmetrical, wormlike animal that has a pseudocoelom, a complete digestive tract, and a transparent cuticle could be a member of what phyla?


What is not a characteristic of mollusks?

three main parts of the body: head, trunk, and tail

What is a characteristic of animals in the group Reptilia?

amniotic egg

Why does human skin color become lighter in more northern populations?

sufficient UV light must penetrate the skin in order to synthesize vitamin D

The flexible, longitudinal rod that is located between the digestive tract and the nerve cord in chordates is called the:


The rapid new shoot growth on a tree during the spring arises mainly from:

apical meristems

What is NOT part of the animal lifecycle?

a diploid sporophyte produces a haploid gametophyte larva, which grows into an adult

What character best correlates with having a four chambered heart?

high metabolic rate with endothermic metabolism

Segments are combined into body regions called:


Wholesale commercial production of many horticultural crops makes use of cloning techniques. What is an advantage of cloning over sexual propagation?

plants produced by cloning grow more uniformly

You find a creature laying eggs in a pond that has four legs and thin, moist skin. You collect some of the eggs and they hatch into larvae that have a tail and no legs, but have a lateral line system. This creature belongs to which group of vertebrates?


Animals that are segmented and have jointed appendages and an exoskeleton are members of the phylum:


The tissue layer that gives rise to the digestive tract and associated organs is called:


The hand-over-hand motion used by primates to swing from tree to tree is called:


The stage at which an embryo is simply a hollow ball of cells is called the:


The type of life cycle seen in plants is called:

alternation of generations

What is a characteristic of flatworms?

bilateral symmetry

In the tissue level of organization:

cells of one or more specialized types work together for common function, and are bound together with specialized junctions

The specialized organ used by most mammals to transfer nutrition from the mother to the young inside their bodies is called the:


The group of primates that includes the monkeys as well as humans and chimpanzees is called the:


What statement is false?


In plants, vascular tissue that consists of living cells that distribute sugars throughout the plant is called:


The term used to describe an organism that is permanently attached to the bottom is:


An internal body space of animals that is completely lined by mesoderm is called a:


Neanderthals and modern humans are best described as:


What is NOT a reason Nematoda are important to humans:


The most ancestral group of primates, which includes the lorises and tarsiers, is called the:


What is a characteristic of animals in the group Aves?


What essential nutrient is most likely to leach from the soil?



increases mobility

Flowers bear seeds in protective chambers called:


What cell provides flexible support to growing parts of plants?

collenchyma cells

What is the type of life cycle seen in plants?

alternation of generations

About 95% of all plants:

have dominant sporophytes in their life cycle

A key step in the adaptation of seed plants to dry land was the evolution of?


The type of plant vascular tissue specialized to conduct sugars and other metabolic products is called?


If you tied a bell onto a branch of a sapling today, where will you find the bell-marked branch in 20 years?

at roughly the same height

The most important factor responsible for pushing growing root through soil is?

cell elongation behind apical meristem

Rapid new shoot growth on trees in the spring arises mainly from?

apical meristems

What was the condition of germinating seeds when in the attic?

they were dormant

Where does most dry matter in plants come from?

carbon dioxide from the air

What force transports water and minerals to the top of a tall tree?

evaporation from the tree drags water upward

Dew, fog, etc. affect vascular plants by:

reducing transpiration rate

The sugar "sink" in roots is created by the:

active transport of sugars from phloem to other root cells

What best describes tissue grade of construction?

cells of several types work together for a common function and are bound together

A coelom is:

a body cavity completely lined with mesoderm

What are the characteristics that make Nematoda different from other phyla?

they are pseudocoelomates

What type of Mollusk is typically a crawling gazer?


Organisms that feed on minute particles in the water are called:

suspension feeders

What is a statement about amphibians that is false?

lungs and appendages for support first evolved in amphibians

What allowed reptiles to complete their development on land?

an amniotic egg

What is not characteristic of modern birds?


What is not true about mammals?

mammals are ectothermic

The oldest known primate group is the:


About how long ago did Homo sapiens appear?

150,000 years ago

What feature doesn't change in specified way during the evolution of hominids?

thumb becomes opposable

What produces gametes?


Correct term for the stinging cells of jellyfish?


What makes echinoderms different from arthropods?

a water vascular system

"Reproductive" character for reptiles?

amniotic egg

What is a true similarity between algae and plants?

plants and algae both are eukaryotic photosynthesizers

Gametangia are:

protective chambers that keep gametes and early embyros moist

What structures allow plants to readily take up carbon dioxide from the atmosphere?


What characteristic is shared by algae and seed plants?


An important interaction between fungi and plants is a mycorrhiza, which:

helps plants take up nutrients and water

What structure allows plants to readily take up carbon dioxide from the atmosphere?


Vascular tissues of plants include:

xylem for conducting water and minerals, and phloem for conducting dissolved organic molecules

These embryophytes have swimming sperm, lack a complex vascular system, and cannot grow tall. What are they?


Gas exchange in most land plants occurs through structures called:


The ___, a zone of rapid cell division that produces growth, is found at primary root and stem tips.

apical meristem

What groups require a water film for reproduction because they have swimming, flagellated sperm?

bryophytes, lycophytes, and ferns

At what time in the evolutionary history of plants did vascular systems likely first evolve?

425 MYA

What characteristic tends to limit bryophytes and seedless vascular plants to habitats that are relatively moist?

presence of flagellated sperm

In a standard plant life cycle, gametophytes are____


Plants undergo alternation of generations in which:

the sporophyte generation alternates with the gametophyte generation

In moss, ____ produce sperm.


The sperm produced by mosses require ___ to reachan archegonia.


In the moss life cycle, ____ cells within a sporangium undergo ___ to produce ___ spores.

diploid, meiosis, haploid

In mosses gametes are produced by _____; in ferns gametes are produced by____

mitosis, mitosis

Where do fern antheridia develop?

on the underside of the gametophyte

The conspicuous part of a fern plant is a:

diploid sporophyte

During the Carboniferous period, forests consisting mainly of ___ produced vast quantities of organic, matter, which was buried and later became coal.

lycophytes and ferns

Are pollen grains male or female gametophytes?


In pines, the female gametophyte contains ____, each of which contains a(n) _____

archegonia, egg

In pines, an embryo is a(n):

immature sporophyte

In pine trees, pollen grains get to the ovule via the:


What statement is true about the gametophyte tissue that surrounds the pine embryo?

it functions as a haploid food reserve

Of the four haploid cells produced by a pine cone's megasporocyte, ___ survive(s).


In the pine, microsporangia form ___ microspores by ___

haploid, meiosis

In angiosperms, pollen grains are released from the ____, land on the sticky ___, and develop a tube down the length of the style to the ovules.

anthers, stigma

The defining reproductive adaptation of angiosperms is the:


A fruit is a ripened ____


A pollen grain is a :

male haploid gametophyte

The ___ is the protective chamber that houses the ovule and later matures to become the fruit.


Pollen is to sperm as ___ is to ___

female gametophyte, egg

After fertilization, the ____ develops into a seed and the ___ develops into a fruit.

ovule, ovary

What structure is found in angiosperms but not gymnosperms?


You find a wildflower that has large, brilliantly colored petals, but it has no odor. What can you deduce about its pollinators?

its pollinators locate flowers by visual cues rather than by smell

In contrast to plants, the cell walls of fungi are composed of:


There is a fungus in Oregon that covers 2,200 acres! The bulk of this fungus is most likely:


Fungi obtain nutrients through:


Yeasts reproduce asexually through ___, and molds reproduce asexually through ___

budding, spores

What structure is an essential part of most fungal reproductive systems?


What structure is not involved in the reproduction of at least one major group of fungi?


What group of fungi contains edible mushrooms?


True or false. All fungi are thought to be descended from an ancient chytrid.


Familiar "toadstools" (mushrooms), puffballs, and shelf fungi are classified in this group.

club fungi (basidiomycetes)

As a group, fungi are:


Fungi release digestive enzymes into their:


Basidia produces spores by a process known as:


Lichens are:

close associations of photosynthesizers and fungi

In their most important roles, fungi ___ plants by ____

benefit, mycorrhizal associations and decomposition

What is a characteristic of dicots?

dicots have two seed leaves

Monocot stems differ from dicot stems in that:

in cross section the vascular bundles of monocots have a complex arrangement, whereas in dicots the vascular bundles are arranged in a circle

Angiosperm is another name for:

a flowering plant

How does plant growth change if the terminal bud is removed or its growth is otherwise hindered?

growth of axillary buds is stimulated so the plant grows outward instead of just upward

The chief function of root hairs is to:

increase the surface area for absorption of water and minerals

Under ideal environmental conditions, a plant has produced much more carbohydrate than it needs to survive. Where will this surplus likely go in the plant body?

ground tissue

The plant tissue system most analogous to our circulatory system is the:

vascular tissue

Guard cells:

control the rate at which a plant loses water

In most leaves, chloroplast-containing cells are most closely compacted in the:


A region of cell division in a plant is called a:


Annual rings in wood reflect the fact that in climates with a single growing season every year, the ___ divides actively when water is plentiful and temperatures are suitable for growth, and ceases to divide when water is scarce and the weather is cold.

vascular cambium

The female structures of angiosperms are called ____, and they produce ____

carpels, ovules

The floral parts that take an active part in reproduction are:

stamens and carpels

Pollen is ___ and produces _____

haploid, sperm nuclei

The male structures of angiosperms are called ___, and they produce ____

anthers, pollen

Flowers bear seeds in protective chambers called:


How do root hairs aid in water uptake in roots?

root hairs increase the surface area of a root, thus increasing the root's absorptive capacity

What describes the loss of water through the stomata in a plant's leaves?


What is the main source of energy that moves water upward in the trunk of a tree?

evaporation of water by the sun

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