108 terms

Bio 109

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Which of the following terms includes all the others on the list
a. Vascular plant
2. Which of the following is characteristic of gymnosperms
a. They are wind-pollinated
3. Carnivorous plants digest small invertebrate animals. These animals are broken down by the plants enzymes and the products are used to supplement the plants supply of
a. Nitrogen
4. The outer green-leaf like portions of a flower enclose the inner petals like a protective barrier. Can you name this outermost portion from the choices below
a. The sepals
6. Which is not a factor that limits population growth
a. All of these factors limit population growth
5. Which of the following is the most plausible explanation for why fruits evolved in plants
a. To aid in the dispersal of seeds
7. Ozone depletion is a cause for concern because
a. Rates of skin cancer are likely to increase
8. Which of the following is currently the leading cause of extinction
a. Habitat loss
9. A species found only within a certain regions said to be ____ to that region
Endemic
10. Biodiversity __ have been identified based on high biodiversity and imminent threats caused by human activities
Hotspots
11. Which of the following is an example of an abiotic factor
a. Mean annual rainfall in an ecosystem
12. An ecosystem
a. Consists of all the living and nonliving things functioning together in an area
13. In a population exhibiting logistic growth, what happens when the carrying capacity is exceeded
a. Growth rate becomes negative until the population is back within the carrying capacity
14. Density-dependent and density-independent factors influence the growth of a population by causing changes in the
a. Birth rate and death rate
15. Kin selection is defined as
a. Selection for a behavior that lowers an individuals own chances of survival or reproduction, but raises those of a relative
16. Two types of polygamy are
a. Polygyny and polyandry
17. Most species of animals
a. Invertebrates
18. In one sense, microevolution is _____, and macroevolution is ___
a. Process, result
19. The biological species concept
a. Defines a species as any group of actually or potentially interbreeding species that produce viable offspring
20. Behaviors that do not require environmental input for their development are called
a. Instincts
21. Evolution occurs
a. Only via natural selection, genetic drift, migration, or mutation
22. A population is
a. A group of individuals in the same species that live in the same general location and have the same potential to interbreed
23. All animals
a. Share a common ancestor
b. Are heterotrophic
24. In terms of their adaptation to living on land, how are reptiles similar to the seed plants
a. Seed plants and reptiles have developed structures such as cuticles and impermeable skin in order to minimize desiccation
b. Reptiles and plants have developed structures which house and protect their gametes from the surrounding environment
25. All arthropods have
a. A chitinous exoskeleton and joined appendages
26. You are eating in a French restaurant and read that snails are on the menu. Being a knowledgeable biologist, you kindly inform the other members at the table that this restaurant is serving the _______ class of Mollusks.
a. Gastropod
27. Sponges of the phylum Porifera are sessile, meaning that they
a. Live attached to a solid structure and do not move around
28. What is endosperm
a. A food-storing tissue of the seed
29. Which of the following characteristic of gymnosperms
c. They are wind-pollinated
30. Gymnosperms and angiosperms have the following in common except:
a. Ovaries
31. The receptive surface for pollen grains is the
a. Stigma
33. Fruit develops from a plant's:
a. Ovary
32. The threads that make up the mycelium of a fungal body are called:
a. Hyphae
34. The female parts of a flower are the
a. Stigma, style, ovary, and ovule
35. Each of the various tissues of a flowering plant serve their own individual functions. Which of the following does NOT properly match a flowering plant's tissue with its function within the plant
a. Shoots: anchors plant to ground, absorbs water and minerals from soils
36. Xylem tissue conducts water while phloem tissue conducts
a. Sugary sap
37. The "pressure-flow mechanism" in trees explains how
a. How sap moves through phloem
38. In the graph, curve B is the
a. Logistic growth curve
39. If there are 800 individuals in a population at the start of a year, and during the year 200 offspring are produced in that population, then the annual birth rate is
.25
40. Life histories are based on
a. All of the above
41. A population pyramid
a. Reflects the number of individuals in various age groups in a population
42. Which of the following is a MAJOR tradeoff in life histories
a. Growth for reproduction
43. Mutations that cause sickness and death after reproduction
a. Can be passed on to future generations
44. A graph illustrating the proportion of individuals in a population that live to a given age is called a(n)
a. Survivorship curve
45. The circulation of the atmosphere is the result of which of the following
a. Heating of the earths surface
46. Rain shadows describes the lower average rainfall that occurs on the backside of mountains
a. True
47. The phenomenon in which species that live together in the same environment tend to diverge in those characters that overlap is known as
a. Character displacement
48. Roughly how much energy in a trophic level is available to the next trophic level
a. 10%
49. The "realized niche' of an organism is defined as:
a. The range of environmental conditions under which the organism survives and reproduces
50. In the interaction of two types of organism habitat, one organism benefits from its interaction from the other but the other organism is unaffected. What is the name for this interaction
a. Commensalism
51. When two species battle for resources and one is driven locally extinct, the process is called
a. Competitive exclusion
52. The biological species concept
a. Defines a species as any group of actually or potentially interbreeding species that produce viable offspring
53. Prokaryotes are classified into ___ domain(s)
2
54. All living things are classified into __ domain(s)
2
55. Classification is an important aspect of understanding and describing the many life forms on earth. In their classification scheme, biologists use different "ranks" that are more or less inclusive. Which of the following correctly lists these ranks from most to least inclusive
a. Domain, phylum, family, genus, species
56. Speciation with geographic isolation is called:
a. Allopatric speciation
57. Which of the following is NOT a prezygotic barrier to interbreeding between different species
a. Hybrids between the two species are infertile
58. A population of organisms that breaks away and becomes different from the original population through isolation and separate evolution might eventually become a separate:
a. Species
59. Viruses are most closely related, in that they share a common ancestor, to which domain of life?
a. Viruses are not considered to be part of the tree of life
60. The three most fundamental groups of organisms on the planet are:
a. Bacteria, archaea, and eukaryote
61. The basic structure of a virus consists of:
a. Genetic information in the form of DNA or RNA enclosed with a protein coat
62. Viral DNA is replicated by:
a. Using the host's metabolic machinery and energy
63. Pathogenic bacteria are bacteria that:
a. Cause diseases
64. Prokaryotes reproduce by ___, which creates __ exact daughter cell clones of the original parent cell
a. Binary fission; two
65. All of the living organisms that we can see with the naked eye are:
i. In the domain Eukarya
66. A population is
a. A group of individuals of the same species that live in the same general location and have the potential to interbreed
67. A gene pool consists of
a. The total number of all alleles present in a population
68. Evolution Occurs:
a. Only via natural selection, genetic drift, migration, or mutation
69. Natural selection can only act on traits:
a. That are heritable
70. During gene flow, where do the genes flow to
a. The genes flow into and out of the population due to migration of individuals from one population to another
71. ___ Selection favors organisms with phenotypes that are at one extreme relative to the average phenotype
a. Directional
72. Which of the following best explains why genetic bottlenecks and founder effects are evolutionary important
a. Both result in small populations that are influenced more by genetic drift
73. The origin of all genetic variation is
a. Mutation
74. From an evolutionary perspective behavior can be viewed best as:
a. A trait that can satisfy the three conditions required for evolution by natural selection
75. An animal will preferentially feed on:
a. The prey that provides the most energy relative to effort
76. Assume that you carry an allele, R that causes you to help individuals to whom you are not related. This help increases their fitness and decreases yours. The frequency of allele R may still increase in the population
a. If individuals you help are likely to help you in the future
77. Which of the following is the best way to distinguish male from female
d. Males produce motile gametes
78. In a polyandrous mating system
a. Multiple males tend to mate with the same female
79. Kin selection is defined as
a. Selection for a behavior that lowers an individuals own chances of survival or reproduction, but raises that of a relative
80. Which of the following is an example of a female mating with a male only after submitting him to a courtship ritual
a. A female bower bird will mate only after inspecting the small thatched structure he has built for her
81. Because it is possible for a female to mate with multiple males, any of whom could be the father, male mammals and birds will always
a. Have some degree of paternity uncertainty
82. Behaviors that do not require environmental input for their development are called
a. instincts
What is the ultimate explanation for modern human preference for fatty foods?
Ancestral humans that preferred fatty foods were less likely to starve, leaving more offspring to the next generation.
When a goose spots an egg outside of its nest, the goose gets out of the nest and rolls the egg back. Once started, a goose continues the egg-retrieval movement all the way back to the nest, even if the egg is taken away during the process. This is called:
a fixed action pattern.
The main bulk of a multicellular fungus is called the _________.
mycelium
The receptive surface for pollen grains is the:
stigma
Which of the following is NOT an example of a gymnosperm?
ferns
Both mosses and ferns must have free standing water present (e.g., water droplets) in order to fulfill their requirements for fertilization. Which of the following choices is the most likely explanation for why this would be?
Both mosses and ferns have motile male gametes that require water to travel to the female gametes.
The stamens of a flowering plant are broken down into two separate parts. The long, stalk-like structure is the _________ and the pollen-producing bodies on the tips are the __________.
filament; anthers
The cell wall of fungi is made of:
chitin.
Dispersal of fungal spores is typically done by:
wind.
For a typical green plant to thrive, it needs:
sunlight, water, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and minerals.
Evaporation from the leaves of a tree will pull water up through the roots as an unbroken column throughout the entire height of the tree. This feat is possible because of which characteristic of water?
cohesion
What do sclerenchyma, parenchyma, and collenchyma cells have in common?
they are all types of ground tissue
Each of the various tissues of a flowering plant serve their own individual functions. Which of the following does NOT properly match a flowering plant's tissue with its function within the plant?
shoots: anchors plant to ground, absorbs water and minerals from soil
When, after seed germination, does photosynthesis begin?
when the shoot emerges from the soil
Research on barnacle distribution in the intertidal zone reveals that species A would readily colonize the lower intertidal areas if species B was absent. This indicates that:
species B can outcompete species A.
What type of effect has an increasing impact as the population size increases?
density-dependent effect
A stationary population pyramid:
reflects unchanging birth and death rate patterns.
A population with a higher death rate than birth rate may still have positive growth. This statement is:
correct; if immigration rates plus birth rates are greater than death rate plus emigration rate, population growth will still be positive even if birth rate is lower than death rate alone.
A key factor in determining the longevity of an organism is
Only a) and b) are correct.
Which of the following mammals would you expect to have the shortest gestation period?
a mouse
Which of the following domains are the MOST closely related, in that they share a unique common ancestor?
Archaea and Eukarya
Echinoderm larvae are ________________, while echinoderm adults are ________________.
bilaterally symmetrical; radially symmetrical
Why is the amniotic egg considered a key evolutionary innovation?
it greatly increases the survival probabilities of eggs in a terrestrial environment.
hich of the following statements about antibiotics is incorrect?
Antibiotics, though effective against viruses, are not effective against bacteria
Rabid animals:
froth at the mouth so as to increase the likelihood that the rabies-causing virus is passed on to another host.
Which of the following statements about an organism's niche is incorrect?
It encompasses the space the organism requires.