50 terms

Weather: Air, Precipitation, Climate, Clouds, Tools

measurement of how hot or cold the air is
moving air
Air pressure
the weight of the air
high pressure causes....
clear skies
low pressure causes...
cloudy skies
no glow
clear skies
What causes wind?
Difference in Air Pressure and / or temperature
Jet stream
fast moving ribbon of air that moves from west to east
Jet streams are caused by
Earth's rotations on its axis or uneven heating of earth
air mass
large body of air that has the same temperature and humidity throughout
Line between two air masses; boundary lines where two air masses meet
what happens at fronts
a storm happens
cold front is shown by
a blue line with triangles pointing to where the air is moving
warm front is shown by
a solid red line with semicircle pointing towards the colder air and in the direction of movement
stationary front
when two air masses meet but neither of them wants to move.
stationary front brings
many days of continuous rain
occluded front
forms when a warm air mass is caught between two cold air masses pushing the warm air up; causes light rain
convection currents
occurs when warm air near Earth's surface rises and then cools as it goes up
surface currents
Earth's oceans that circulate warm and cold ocean waters in convection patterns and influence the weather and climates of the land nearby
sea breeze
During the day the sun heats the land faster than the water and makes the air above it hot; this air rises and pulls in air from the sea to replace it
land breeze
At night the land cools down and when it is colder than the sea then hot air rises from the sea surface and it pulls in air from the land
Coriolis effect
occurs when convection cells are in place in the atmosphere and earth is spinning on it axis, these global winds appear to curve
Trade Winds (remember the E in trade before W in winds)
blows from EAST to WEST bringing tropical air
Prevailing Westerlies (remember West is before the E in east in the word westerlies)
blows from WEST to EAST in the temperate region.
Polar easterlies (remember EAST in easterlies tell you that winds blow east to west)
blows from east to west in the polar region moving cold polar air
falling rain
Types of precipitation
rain, sleet, hail, snow, and freezing rain
Rain shadow
lack of precipitation on the side of a mountain away from the wind and creating deserts
Water Cycle
It starts by having water out to sea. Water enters to the atmosphere as water vapor through evaporation and transpiration. Water vapor turns into water droplets through condensation. Then it rains and water tries to go to sea level. If they do, it is called a run-off.
Solar Energy
energy from the sun that fuels the water cycle
the day to day changes of temperature precipitation wind and air pressure
long term patterns over a period of time on an area
Tropical Climate zone
warm, wet most of the year (area along the equator)
Temperate Climate Zone
has 4 seasons
Polar Climate Zone
cold, and dry most of the year
El Nino
a climate pattern where the water in the Pacific Ocean near the equator gets hotter than usual and affects the weather around the world; It occurs every few years but is not predictable
La Nina
The water in the same area along the equator gets colder than usual
Cirrus Clouds
High clouds, no precipitation, formed from ice crystals
Middle clouds, fair weather
Low clouds
Storm clouds
Clouds near the ground
describe medium level clouds
measures humidity
measures temperature
measures wind speed
rain gauge
measures rainfall
weather / wind vane
measures wind direction
measures air pressure

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