32 terms

BERGIN CHAPTER 12

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Tang Tiazong
A brilliant emperor from the Tang Dynasty who reigned from 629-649; During the time period of the Tang and Song Dynasties, China experienced a Golden Age; He began great achievements that contributed to this age.
Wu Zaho
An empress who held power while weak emperors held the throne by 668 while China expanded to Korea and in 690, she assumed the throne herself-- only women to do this in Chinese history.
movable type
Blocks of metal or wood, each bearing a single character, that can be arranged to make up a page for printing
Gentry
A class of powerful wealthy people who enjoy a high social status
Clan
a group of people descended from a common ancestor
Genghis Khan
Before taking the title of "universal leader of all clans" in 1206, this individual was known as Temujin and lead the Mongols to control most of Asia; characteristics of his leader ship were affective organization, intelligent strategy, possessing strong warriors that he directed to follow the method of the Chinese military and intense cruelty
Pax Mongolica
The period of Mongol peace-- from the kid 1200s to the mid 1300s when the mongols imposed stability and law and order across much of Eurasia
Kublai Khan
The grandson of Genghis Khan who took this title great Khan in 1260;He sought to fulfill his grandfathers goal of conquering all of China; he founded the Yuan Dynasty unifying china for 300 years; promoted trade and upheld many Chinese cultural and governmental practices
Marco Polo
During Pax Mongolia, he was multilingual Venetian trader who served Kublai Khans court for 17 years on government missions; later during his imprisonment a fellow prisoner compiled his tales of China which gained popularity in Europe; their is a controversy with this book
Shinto
A native religion in Japan; it means "way of the Gods"; ancestral worship and respect for the forces of nature; followers believe Kami, or divine spirits, dwelled in places like beautiful trees, rocks, waterfalls and/ or mountains
Samurai
One of the professional warriors who severed the Japanese feudal lords; means "one who serves"
Bushido
A strict code of behavior followed by a samurai warrior in Japan; means "way of the warrior"
Shogun
In feudal japan, a supreme military commander who ruled in the name of the emperor
Khmer Empire
A Southeast Asian Empire located in what is now Cambodia, that reached its peak of power around AD 1200
Angkor Wat
A temple complex built in the Khmer Empire that served as an observatory and was dedicated to the Hindu God Vishnu
Koryu Dynasty
A dynasty that ruled Korea from AD 935 to 1392; they modeled their central government after China and imported a civil service program ( this social service program did not provide much social mobility however)
Pastoralist
A member of a nomadic that herds domesticated animals
Why was the reform of the civil service under the Tang so significant
The reform created a governing class, called the gentry, that was open to anyone with talent and education
How did changes in agriculture support other developments during the Song Dynasty
Introducing new rice strain increased the food supply allowing for the growth of cities
What were some of the scientific and technological accomplishments during the Tang and Song periods
-movable type, for more effective printing on paper
-gunpowder leading to the creation of rockets, bombs, grenades and small cannons
- porcelain, mechanical clock, paper money, magnetic compass for sailing/ traveling
-advances in arithmetic, algebra, use of negative #s
Describe the urban social classes that emerged during the Tang and Song periods
During the Tang and Song periods, China saw increasing mobility within society and the civil service program continued to allow for social advancement

Gentry
Urban middle class- merchants, shopkeepers, skilled artisans
Lowest class- (largest segment) soldiers peasants servants

Role of women: subservient to men in China. Changing attitudes decreased the value of female contributions to society in the upper class. Foot binding became common practice, crippling girls for life. Peasants attitudes were not affected as much as women since women worked in the fields.
Why were nomads and settled peoples sometimes in conflict
Nomads often raided settled areas to steal things they lacked. Settled people wanted to expand into Nomads grazing lands
What were the most important accomplishments of the Mongol Empire
Mongols are credited with establishing the largest empire in world history and promoting trade through out Asia
Explain how kublai Khan treated his Chinese subjects
He barred Chinese from high political offices, but he did retain Chinese officials to serve at the local level. The high post were reserved for mongols or foreigners who proved their loyalty
How did Kublai Khan encourage trade
He promoted trade by restoring and extending the Grand Canal and building a paved highway alongside it. He also ensured the safety of major trade routes and invited foreign merchants to china
Judging from the events of Yuan Dynasty, do you think Mongol policies toward the Chinese were effective?
Yes-- needed to eliminate Chinese resentment, mongols fell because of weak leadership

No-- Chinese were resentful and rebellious, and yielding more power might have led to greater acceptance
How did feudalism develop in Japan
As the central government faded, large landowners acquired military strength and fought one another. In response to the threat of violence, farmers and small land owners traded parts of their land to warlords in exchange for protection. This feudal system held similarities with the systems in China and Europe
Why do you think the shoguns chose to rule through puppet emperors rather than simply seizing the imperial throne for themselves?
The emperor was a symbol of unity and order. Removing such a figure potential would cause great unrest.
Describe the two sources of prosperity for Southeast Asian Empires
Rice production and trade
What were the major accomplishments of the Koryu Dynasty
The Civil service system, Celadon pottery, and thousands of large wooden blocks used for printing of Buddhist scriptures
How does the Japanese adaption of Buddhism illustrate the process of selective cultural borrowing
The Japanese helped merge their own Shinto Beliefs with the Buddhist faith they adopted from the Chinese. This follows the general pattern Japanese of cultural borrowing-- which was to adopt what they borrowed and suit it to their own traditions and needs
Describe the impact of Chinese culture on Japan
Korean travelers brought numerous Chinese influences to the Japanese. Japan adopted much of the Chinese culture, including Buddhism, artistic Styles, daily customs like hair , and writing but it was unable to import China's civil service program. For a brief time the Japanese government was modeled after the Tang rulers but they could not replicate their tradition of having a hereditary aristocracy.