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Terms in this set (60)
They wanted to build a "City on a hill" to be a light to an homeland country of england that was pulling away form Christanity. They did so to escape persecution.
Motive of those settling Virginia
The motive was originally to make a profit and then return back to their homeland. However, tobacco became essential and most colonist stayed and built a colony for long term settlement.
1st Great Awakening
a series of religious revivals among Protestants in the American colonies, from 1725-1770
The religion of the Enlightenment (1700s). Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws. Denied that God communicated to man or in any way influenced his life.
Albany Congress, 1754
In 1754 the British government asked colonial representatives to meet to develop a treaty to keep the Iroquois tribes loyal to the british in the spreading war. Its long term purpose was to achieve greater colonial unity and thus bolster the common defense against britain.The assembly adopted a plan developed by Benjamin Franklin but it was rejected by England and the colonies.
Legal Rights of Women (Colonial Era)
Women who were maried in colonial times had very few leagally secured rights. While most women did marry, some women remained single. Single or widowed women were allowed more freedoms, like owning property. no voting rights and for the most part no rights or power in government at all
Stamp Act/ Stamp Congress
group of colonists who protested the Stamp Act, saying that Parliament couldn't tax without colonist' consent
Slavery in pre-independence times
a social-economic system under which certain persons — known as slaves — are deprived of personal freedom and compelled to perform labour or services. discrimination, hard times, and rough conditions are frequent. majority of slaves were used in southern plantations as field workers
People who could not afford passage to the colonies could become indentured servants. Another person would pay their passage, and in exchange, the indentured servant would serve that person for a set length of time (usually seven years) and then would be free.
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
Articles of Confederation
This document, the nation's first constitution, was adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1781 during the Revolution. The document was limited because states held most of the power, and Congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage.
Bill of Rights
The first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution, drafted in response to some of the Anti-Federalist concerns. These amendments define such basic liberties as freedom of religion, speech, and press and guarantee defendants' rights. It also gives state governments power, rather than the federal government.
Hamilton's economic plans
Federalist: Government would pay for debts by wealthy buying bonds to pay for debt. In this way, old bonds replaced by new bonds. Always going to have debt so there will be a need for wealthy people.Pay back IOU's, but rich people had bought the promissory notes for a lot less that what they were worth before people knew they were getting money back. New owners received the money. Hamilton wanted national bank. it would give loans, help businesses, collect taxes, but if this happens then all private banks would go out of business (because nat. bank beats all) and a lot of anti feds owned private banks so opposed this
this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes
An insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called "X,Y, and Z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand.
Marbury vs. Madison
Case in which the supreme court first asserted the power of Judicial review in finding that the congressional statue expanding the Court's original jurisdiction was unconstitutional
The U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon, in 1803. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America. The U.S. gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size.
December 1814 - A convention of New England merchants who opposed the Embargo and other trade restriction, and the War of 1812. They proposed some Amendments to the Constitution and advocated the right of states to nullify federal laws. They also discussed the idea of seceding from the U.S. if their desires were ignored. The Hartford Convention turned public sentiment against the Federalists and led to the demise of the party.
An American inventor who developed the cotton gin. Also contributed to the concept of interchangeable parts that were exactly alike and easily assembled or exchanged
Henry Clay's "American System"
Plan for economic growth: establish a protective tariff, establish a national bank, improve the country's transportation system, and federal funding of internal improvements.
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers. He was also responsible for the Indian Removal Act. He supported westward expansion.
Trail of Tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
Nullification, John C. Calhoun, Tariff of Abominations (1828)
The Tariff of 1828 was a protective tariff passed by the Congress of the United States on May 19, 1828, designed to protect industry in the northern United States. It was labeled the Tariff of Abominations by its southern detractors because of the effects it had on the antebellum Southern economy.
John C. Calhoun oppossed the tariff.
Followers of a belief which stressed self-reliance, self- culture, self-discipline, and that knowledge transcends instead of coming by reason. They promoted the belief of individualism and caused an array of humanitarian reforms.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom. He was a prime example of a transcendentalist and helped further the movement.
William Lloyd Garrison, "The Liberator"- abolitionist
William Lloyd Garrison (December 12, 1805 - May 24, 1879) was a prominent American abolitionist, journalist, and social reformer. He is best known as the editor of the abolitionist newspaper The Liberator, and as one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society, he promoted "immediate emancipation" of slaves in the United States. Garrison was also a prominent voice for the women's suffrage movement.
Harriet Tubman- Underground Railroad
Harriet Tubman was a former slave who guided escaped slaves on a secret trail to freedom known as the Underground Railroad.
Dred Scott vs. Sandford, 1857
Helped guarantee Civil war. declared Missouri Compromise of 1850 unconstitutional: ruled congress had no right to exclude slavery from the territories using 5th amendment. Also slaves were not citizens of the US, so they could not sue in a state or federal court
The concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. People express themselves through voting and free participation in government
This Act set up Kansas and Nebraska as states. Each state would use popular sovereignty to decide what to do about slavery. People who were proslavery and antislavery moved to Kansas, but some antislavery settlers were against the Act. This began guerrilla warfare.
Douglas's Freeport Doctrine
popular sovereignty can exclude slavery anywhere
Primary Cause of Civil War
Maintain the union, slavery central in social, geographical, states-rights, economic, and political arguements
Emancipation Proclamation, 1863
encouraged the border states to outlaw slavery, gave the North the moral high ground, calculated to win support of Britain and France.
punish south, protect former slaves; US military occupation of South, Confederate military leaders needed pardon to hold office, protect Blacks right to vote
Compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river
Knights of Labor
1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed
Dawes Act, 1887
dissolved many tribes as legal entities, wiped out tribal ownership of land, and set up individual Indian family heads with 160 free acres. If the Indians behaved like "good white settlers" then they would get full title to their holdings as well as citizenship. The Dawes Act attempted to assimilate the Indians with the white men. The Dawes Act remained the basis of the government's official Indian policy until the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934.
Movement led by Washington Gladden - taught religion and human dignity would help the middle class over come problems of industrialization
formed by farmers, wanted a reduced tariff, a graduated income tax, government control of the railroads, extension of the money supply (free silver), included Blacks (which hurt them)
also called yellow journalism, a term used to describe the sensationalist newspaper writings of the time of the Spanish American war. They were written on cheap yellow paper. The most famous yellow journalist was William Randolph Hearst. Yellow journalism was considered tainted journalism - omissions and half-truths. "Remember the 'Maine'"
The second major wave of immigration to the U.S.; betwen 1865-1910, 25 million new immigrants arrived. Unlike earlier immigration, which had come primarily from Western and Northern Europe, the New Immigrants came mostly from Southern and Eastern Europe, fleeing persecution and poverty. Language barriers and cultural differences produced mistrust by Americans. Gilded Age
Open Door Policy
American approach to China around 1900, favoring open trade relations between China and other nations
Du Bois and Booker T Washington
Dubois believed in political agitation, that you could not have social and economic rights unless you had political rights to defend them.
Washington believed that economic progress was sufficient, and that in other areas (segregation and political repression) blacks could tolerate inequality.
Writers who exposed corruption and abuses in politics, business, child labor and more. Primarily in the 20th century, their popular books and magazine articles spurred public interest in reform. Sinclair Lewis, Mother Jones
Germany's unrestricted submarine warfare
The immediate cause of American entry into WWI was
Wilson's 14 Points
Woodrow Wilson's plan for post-war peace: no secret treaties; freedom of the seas; removal of economic barriers; reduction of arms; adjust colonial claims. Wilson lost Senate because he wouldn't compromise on wording, Senate didn't want US totally tied to L of N charter.
Bonus Army, 1932
group of jobless World War I veterans who came to Washington to lobby Congress for immediate payment of money promised them in 1945; Hoover opposed payment, and when he used the U.S. Army to drive the veterans out of the capital, he was portrayed as cruel and cold-hearted.
100 Day Congress, New Deal
New Deal: Term used to describe President Franklin Roosevelt's relief, recovery, and reform programs designed to combat the Great Depression.
100 day congress granted roosevelt everything he wanted.
Civilian Conservation Corps
Relief: (CCC) March 31, 1933; reduced poverty/unemployment, helped young men and families; young men go to rural camps for 6 months to do construction work; $1/day; intended to help youth escape cities; concerned with soil erosion, state/national parks, telephone/power lines; 40 hr weeks
Cuban Missile Crisis
an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.
Brown vs Board of Education
1954- court decision that declared state laws segregating schools to be unconstitutional. Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
arms & space race, & education receives greater emphasis in US
Sit-Ins, 1960, Greensboro, NC
Seeking integration into public facilities, black protesters would sit outside all white locations, mostly teenagers
Civil Rights Act 1960, 1964
Laws signed by Eisenhower to protect blacks' rights, they were the first such laws to be enacted by the U.S Congress since Reconstruction/ prohibiting discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, sexual preference and national origin by federal and state governments as well as some public places
Black Muslim who argued for separation, not integration. He changed his views, but was assassinated in 1965.
Gulf of Tonkin Incident
the questionable exchange of fire between US ships and the North Vietnamese gave President Johnson the excuse he needed to get Congrssional approval for the use of military power in the region
1972; Nixon feared loss so he approved the Commission to Re-Elect the President to spy on and espionage the Democrats. A security gaurd foiled an attempt to bug the Democratic National Committe Headquarters, exposing the scandal. Seemingly contained, after the election Nixon was impeached and stepped down
Tet Offensive, 1968
series of Communist attacks on 44 South Vietnamese cities; although the Viet Cong suffered a major defeat, the attacks ended the American view that the war was winnable and destroyed the nation's will to escalate the war further.
Camp David Accords
In 1979, Jimmy Carter invited Sadat, and Israeli prime minister, Menachem to the USA to settle their issues. They signed an agreement, which ended 30 years of hostility between the two countries
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