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Terms in this set (18)
Why are viruses considered intracellular parasites?
they lack ability to reproduce on their own & don't carry metabolic activity
Describe the following properties of viruses: size, shape, general mode of reproduction.
size: smaller than prok and euk cells shapes: rods, spheres, and complex
mode of reproduction: replicative growth (virus directs host cell to make copies of virus) & dormant stages (latency in animal viruses/lysogeny in bacteriophages)
How do enveloped viruses differ from non-enveloped viruses?
non-enveloped virus: a protein coat called capsid that surrounds genetic material and one or more enzymes
enveloped virus: has genetic materials, capsid, and a membranous envelope
What is a bacteriophage?
viruses that infect bacteria
List the viral diseases mentioned in class.
colds, measles, chicken pox, shingles, meningitis, Zika virus, Spanish flu, AIDS, ebola
What does Tamiflu do to help slow down infection of a person by the flu virus?
Tamiflu prevents new viruses from being released from host cells and infecting other cells
In general terms, what do vaccines do?
create immunity to viral disease
Describe the lytic cycle of a bacteriophage.
viral genetic material enters host cell (directs production of viral proteins and viral genetic material), viruses assemble within the host cell, then mature viruses (virions) emerge from host cell
Describe the lysogenic cycle of a bacteriophage.
Viral DNA integrates into host chromosome (virus is in dormant state, viral DNA is replicated each time host cell's DNA is replicated) then environmental signals cause viral genetic material to exist host chromosome and begin lytic cycle
Does a virus become dormant in the lytic or lysogenic cycle of a bacteriophage?
List the five general stages of the replicative growth cycle of viruses.
(1) entry into host cell (2) production of viral proteins (3) replication of viral genetic material (4) assembly of new virions (5) release from host cell
How do plant viruses typically enter a host cell?
enter through break in plant cell wall
How do bacteriophages typically enter a host cell?
bind to chemical on bacterial cell wall which degrades cell wall with lysozyme
How do animal viruses typically enter a host cell?
bind to chemical on host cell membrane
Describe how each of the following leaves a host cell: enveloped viruses, non-enveloped viruses.
non-enveloped cells: if cell wall is present, virus produces enzymes to degrade host cell wall
enveloped cells: bud from host cell
What is reverse transcriptase?
makes copies of viral DNA from viral RNA
What is a retrovirus?
RNA reverse transcribing viruses
List the types of genetic material that viruses have
DNA, RNA, Proteins
Recommended textbook explanations
Modern Biology: Student Edition
Janet L. Hopson, Postlethwait
Miller and Levine Biology
Joseph S. Levine, Kenneth R. Miller
Johnson, Peter H. Raven
Biology Study Guide
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1C Bacteria and Archaea
2B 3A Green Plants
3B Plant Form & Function
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