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1C Bacteria and Archaea
Terms in this set (22)
What are the main differences between a prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell?
Compare bacteria, archaea, eukaryotes.
Nuclear Envelope: (b):no (a): no (e):yes
Chromosome: (b):circular (a): circular (e): linear
Membranous Organelles: (b): usually none (a): none described (e): extensive
Cell Wall: (b): almost all have peptidoglycan (a): doesn't include peptidoglycan (e): when present usually made of cellulose or chitin
Which is believed to be more closely related to Eukarya, Bacteria or Archaea?
How old is the Earth? How long after the Earth formed did the first prokaryotes appear in the fossil record? How long after the earth formed did eukaryotes appear?
Earth: 4.6 bya
1st pro: 3.5 bya
1st euk: 1.75 bya
List two ways that species of bacteria and archaea can be identified.
Enrichment Culture Method: obtain a sample, set up artificial culture conditions that simulate environment, inoculate culture w sample, isolate and characterize species that grow
Direct Sequencing Method: amplify, purify and sequence DNA
List some examples of the extreme habitats in which Archaea and Bacteria live.
High temperature, high salinity, high acidity, anoxic environments
What are the three basic shapes of prokaryotic cells? What do the prefixes "diplo," "strepto," and "staphylo" indicate?
diplo: two cells together
Strepto: chain-like arrangement of cells
Staphylo: grape like cluster of cells
What substance is present in cell walls of Bacteria that is not present in cell walls of Archaea?
What color do gram positive and gram negative bacteria stain when treated with the gram stain? How do the cell walls of the two types of cells differ?
gram +: purple (thick layers)
gram -: pink (thin layers)
What are the three mechanisms used by prokaryotes to obtain energy for ATP synthesis, and what is each type of organism called?
phototrophs: light energy
chemoorganotrophs: use organic molecules (ex. glucose)
chemolothotrophs: use inorganic molecules (ex. NH3, H2)
What are the two mechanisms used to acquire organic "building block" molecule building blocks, and what is each type of organism called?
heterotrophs: acquire building blocks from other organisms
autotrophs: "fix" carbon to make their own building blocks with C-C bonds
Fill in the table below summarizing metabolic diversity in prokaryotes
How do oxygenic phototrophs differ from anoxygenic phototrophs?
oxygenic use H2O as electron donor and produce O2
anoxygenic use other electron donor and don't produce O2
Among chemoorganotrophs and chemolitotrophs, what is meant by an anaerobic vs. aerobic?
aerobic: use O2 as the terminal electron acceptor
anaerobic: use another substance as the terminal electron acceptor
Which group of bacteria were important in generating the first free O2 on earth?
What is one way that prokaryotes are important commercially?
food industry: fermentation of swiss cheese/yogurt
How are prokaryotes medically important? What are antibiotics?
bacteria produce antibiotics (substance that kills or inhibits growth of bacteria)
List five ways in which prokaryotes are ecologically important.
nitrogen fixation, nutrient cycling, primary producers, decomposers, bioremediation
What is nitrogen fixation? What specialized cells in cyanobacteria carry out nitrogen fixation?
converting N2 to NH3 or NO3- ; heterocysts
What are biofilms? Do biofilms increase or decrease resistance to antibiotics? How do biofilms affect the ability of bacteria to contaminate surfaces?
dense colonies of bacteria enmeshed in organic matrix; they increase resistance to antibiotics; they adhere to surfaces and promote contamination
Fill in the table below describing lineages of bacteria.
Fill in the table below describing lineages of Archaea
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