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BIO Test #1 ch.1-2
Terms in this set (77)
the study of living things
Superstitions are ________.
irrational beliefs that actions not logically related to a course of events influence its outcome.
. Science is self-correcting. This means that:
science actively seeks to disprove its own theories and hypotheses.
What should you do when something you believe turns out to be wrong?
change your mind
You note a fuzzy growth on some of the gels in your incubator. What is the name given to this step of the scientific
Thinking scientifically relies on which of the following?
objective observation and experimentation
Which of the following is usually employed before the others by an investigator using the scientific method?
are always true.
A null hypothesis______:
is the premise that no difference exists between a treatment and control group.
"Engaging in aerobic activity three times each week will reduce cholesterol levels" is a
When conducting a scientific experiment, which of the following is tested?
After generating a hypothesis, a scientist next:
makes a prediction
A _____________ is a pill that looks identical to a pill that contains the active ingredient in a scientific trial, but
contains no active ingredient itself
Which of the following is the BEST way to state the relationship between "data" and "results"?
"Data" are the facts you collect from your experiment, while "results" are your interpretation of what the data
A scientific theory is one that:
is the result of all scientific experiments
The placebo effect is:
is the frequently observed, poorly understood, phenomenon that people tend to respond favorably to any
In controlled experiments:
one variable is manipulated while others are held constant
Which of the following is the BEST description of a control group in an experiment?
The control group is identical to each test group except for one variable
In a scientific study, the dependent variable is:
a measurable entity whose value always fluctuates up and down, closely following changes in another
Statistical methods make it possible to:
determine how likely it is that certain results may have occurred by chance
The set of analytical and mathematical tools designed to help researchers gain understanding from the data they
gather is called:
In a randomized, controlled, double-blind study:
neither the experimenter nor the subject know whether the subject is in a control group or an experimental
When comparing two groups, _________________________ the more confident we are of the conclusion that there
is a significant difference in the groups.
the smaller the variation in each group
Which of the following statements BEST explains the observation that there are more autism cases now than in the
. Doctors are more aware of the condition and have better techniques for diagnosing and reporting it.
All of the following are branches of science EXCEPT:
Pseudoscience capitalizes on the belief shared by most people that:
scientific thinking is a powerful method for learning about the world.
can appear to reveal links between two phenomena that do not actually exist.
How can science best help each of us understand the role of humans in nature?
. Science can provide understanding of how the systems of nature work.
Which of the following terms and phrases best describes the application of scientific knowledge to specific
All of the following are branches of biology EXCEPT:
. Despite all of the intellectual analyses the scientific method gives rise to and objective conclusions it makes
possible, it CANNOT:
generate moral statements
a substance that cannot be broken down chemically into any other substance
which of the five chemical elements make up 93-97% of the biomass in plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria
carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorus
__________ is the smallest chemical unit of a type of pure substance.
The four most abundant elements in living organisms are:
hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon
Of all the elements that occur on earth, how many are found in your body?
Some atoms of an element contain more neutrons or fewer neutrons than the most commonly found "version" of the
atoms for that element. These "alternate versions" of the standard atom are called:
All matter on earth, both living and non-living, is made up of:
There are three principal types of bonds that hold multiple atoms together. These are:
covalent bonds, ionic bonds, and hydrogen bonds.
Multiple atoms linked together are collectively called a(n):
Water molecules form which type of bond with other water molecules?
The most abundant molecule in the cell is:
A chemical compound that releases OH- into a solution is called:
The pH of a fluid is a measure of
how acidic or basic it is
A solution's acidity is:
a measure of the H+ (free flowing protons) in it
Certain molecules act like bank accounts for H+ ions because they can absorb excess H+ ions to keep a solution
from becoming too acidic and release H+ ions to keep the solution from becoming too basic. Such molecules are
Urine, with a pH of 6, is _________ times more acidic than seawater, with a pH of 8.
Pure water and aqueous solutions that are neither acidic nor basic are said to be:
Which of the following statements is true about acids and bases?
acids mixed with bases neutralize each other
Glucose that circulates in your blood has one of three fates: it is used to fuel cellular activities, it can be converted
into fat, or it can _______.
be stored temporarily as glycogen
Which of the following are all monosaccharides?
glucose, fructose, and galactose
Glycogen belongs in the class of molecules known as:
Lactose is a combination of:
glucose and galactose
Sucrose (table sugar) and lactose (the sugar found in milk) are examples of:
A complex polymer built of monosaccharides is called a(n)
Which of the following is a polysaccharide?
cellulose, the primary component of plant cell walls
On food packages, "insoluble fiber" refers to plant material that we can't fully digest but is important for
maintaining a healthy digestive tract. This substance refers to a(n):
Saturated fatty acids have _________________ than unsaturated fatty acids, which is why they exist as a
____________ at room temperature.
fewer double bonds; solid
All lipids are:
not soluble in water
The principal components of cell membranes are:
Phospholipids assemble spontaneously into bilayers driven by the attraction of their "tail" portions to each other and
of their "head" portions to each other. The tail regions are:
In dietary terms, a "complete" protein is one that:
contains all of the essential amino acids
Glycoproteins are membrane proteins with bound
The secondary structure of a protein refers to:
the twisting of the amino acid chain into a corkscrew-like shape or into a zigzag folding pattern
A complex polymer built of amino acids is called a(n):
increase the rate at which a reaction occurs
Figuratively, the primary structure of proteins is often described as amino acids connected like "beads on a string."
In this same vein, which of the following images BEST describes protein quaternary structure?
threads in a cloth
Enzymes are composed of:
Which of the following statements about enzymes is NOT true?
enzymes are permanently changed when they take place in a chemical reaction
Phenylketonuria is an inherited disorder. Affected individuals have a defective enzyme called phenylalanine
hydroxylase. The substance these individuals cannot break down is a(n):
DNA is made of:
In DNA, adenine from one strand binds to ______ in the complementary strand.
A partial sequence of a molecule is "AACTGCT." The molecule is:
a nucleic acid
Which type of macromolecule is an informational molecule?
One of the four nucleotide bases in DNA is replaced by a different base in RNA. Which base is it, and what is it
thymine, replaced by uracil
Which of the following nucleotide bases are present in equal amounts in DNA?
adenine and thymine
Phosphate groups are important components of:
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