Terms in this set (91)
System that senses, organizes, alters, stores, and retrieves information
First process: Encoding
get sensory information(sight, sound, etc) into a form that the brain can use. set of mental operations that people perform on sensory information to convert that information into a form that is usable in the brains storage system. most forgetfulness happens hear
example of encoding
when people hear a sound, their ears turn vibrations in the air into neural messages from the auditory nerve(transduction) which make it possible for the brain to interpret that sound
Second Process: Storage
hold on to the information for some period of time.
Period of time is different depending on the storage system of memory being used Holding on to encoded information
Example of Storage
one system of memory, people hold on to information just long enough to work with it, about 20 seconds or so.
Third Process: Retrieval
Getting the information out of storage.
Models of memory: Information- Processing Model
Model of memory that assumes the processing of information for memory storage is similar to the way a computer processes memory in a series of three stages.
Encoding, Storage, and retrieval
Parallel Distributed processing(PDP) model
simultaneous processing allows people to retrieve many different aspects of memory all at once, facilitating much faster reactions and decisions.
a model in which memory processes are proposed to take place at the same time over a large network of neural connections
Information Processing model assumes
that the length of time that a memory will be remembered depends on the stage of memory of which it is stored, other researchers have proposed that a memory;s duration depends on the depth, the effort made to understand the meaning to which the information is processed or encoded.
Levels of Processing Model-
model of memory that assumes information that is more deeply processed or processed according to its meaning rather than just the sound or physical characteristics of the word or words, will be remembered more efficiently for a longer period of time. leads to longer remembrance of the word.
Example of Levels of Processing Model
If shown the word ball, and asked to use the word in a sentence, they would have to think about what a ball is and how it can be used. they have to process its meaning with requires a lot of effort
Example of Parallel Distributed Model-
If the word BALL is flashed on a screen and people are asked to report whether the word was in capital letters or lowercase, the words itself doesnt have to be processed very much at all, only its visual characteristics need enter into conscious attention
looks and sound repeating something
relates sound and perception together, rhyming
associating things based on their meaning
Information Processing Model: 3 parts
Sensory memory, short term memory, and long term memory
sensory memory- comes in through the senses
Main Process- pattern recognition (Icons and Echos)
Capacity- large but not unlimited, Duration of sensory codes- very brief.
First stage of Memory-
Sensory memory, the point at which information enters the nervous system through the sensory systems- ears, eyes, and so on.
Information is encoded into sensory memory as neural messages in the nervous system. As log as those neural messages are traveling through the system, people have memory for that information that can be accessed if needed
Sensory memory is like
a doors that is open for a brief time, looking through the door, once can see many people and objects, but only some of them will make it through the door itself. Only certain things will get through and remembered.
Example of Sensory memory
Elaina is driving down the street, looking at the people and cars on either side of her vehicle. what was the man wearing. she looks back to check. eyes moved past the possible pants-less person but some part of her brain processed what she saw, also known as a double take.
Ionic Memory: One type of Sensory Memory-
visual, example of seeing the possibly pants-less person, capacity of iconic memory is everything that can be seen at one time. short duration. Function- helps the visual systems to view surroundings as continuous and stable in spite of movements. allows brain enough time for the brain stem to decide if the information is important enough to be brought into consciousness.
Echoic Memory: Second type of Sensory Memory
hearing, brief memory of something a person has heard, "What" Phenomenon, you didn't really process the statement from the person, you heard it but your brain didn't interpret it immediately. took several seconds for you to realize something was said, it may have been important and you have to try to remember what it was. hear an echo in your head.Capacity is limited to what can be heard at one moment and is smaller than the capacity of ionic memory although it last longer(2-4) seconds. very useful when a person wants to have a meaningful conversation with others. allows person to remember what someone said long enough to understand the meaning of it.
second stage of memory: Short-Term Memory-
the memory system in which information is held for brief periods of time while being used.
when a person is thinking actively about information, information is said to be conscious and in STM
Selective attention-attention processes
attention processes act very much like a funnel, giving more energy to processing what't most important and funneling out what isn't
- selects the most important things the rest go away.
short term memory goes through this- the ability to focus on only one stimulus from among all sensory input.
More about short term memory-
Encoding- visual and auditory, visual sketchpad and phonological loop.
capacity- relatively limited, magic number 7(+/-2) letters or numbers, Duration 12 to 30 seconds- without rehearsal... longer with maintenance rehearsal(saying information over and over again)
an active system that processes the information in short-term memory
way to fool STM into holding more information then usual(stacking related files on desk) bits of information combined into meaningful units, or chunks, more information can be held
Third Stage of Memory: Long Term Memory-
the system of memory into which all the information is placed to be kept more or less permanently, unlimited capacity
Rote Rehearsal- LTM
repeating to yourself
Elaborative Rehearsal- LTM
way of transferring information from STM into LTM by making that information meaningful in some way. making connections to examples and topics
Long Term memories include?
general facts and knowledge, personal facts and even skills that can be preformed
Procedural Memory- LTM
memory for skills, involves a series of steps or procedures. implicit memory, how to walk/ how to write, type of long term memory including memory for skills, procedures, habits, and conditioned response. These memories are not conscious but are implied to exist because they affect conscious behavior. emotional associations habits, and simple conditioned reflexes that may or not be in conscious awareness which are often very strong memories
anterograde amnesia - LTM
loss of memory from the point of injury or trauma forward, or the inability to form new long-term memories. caused from damage to the hippocampus area of the brain
Implicit Memory- LTM
memory that is not easily brought into conscious awareness, such as procedural memory
- Hard to bring in conscious memory
Example of Implicit memory-
Tying ones shoe its hard to tell them how to(get it in your conscious mind but it is easy when your doing it yourself unconscious mind.
Declarative Memory- LTM
Memory for Facts, facts are things that are known and can be declared outright. facts and information that make up knowledge
-type of LTM containing information that is conscious and known.
Two types of Declarative Memory- LTM
Semantic and Episodic
Semantic Memory- LTM
Part of declarative memory, general knowledge that anyone has the ability to know, relatively permeant, learned in school or by reading
- meaning of words, concepts, terms, names of objects, math skills, facts, definitions
Episodic Memory- LTM
part of declarative Memory, recalling episodes of life, personal knowledge that each person has of his or her daily life and personal history, a kind of autobiographical memory.
- type of declarative memory containing personal information not readily available to others, such as daily activities and events
more updated and revised
Examples of Episodic Memory- LTM
memories of what has happened to people each day, certain birthdays, and anniversaries that were particularly special, childhood events.
Episodic and Semantic, memories that are easily made conscious and brought from long- term into short term memory. consciously known.
LTM Semantic Network-
closely associated memories stored closely together, faster, more accurate recall of closely related concepts, reduction to gist
- model of memory that assumes information is stored in the brain in a connected fashion, with concepts that are related stored physically closer to each other than concepts that are not highly related.
Example of how information is organized in LTM.
think about the internet, person might go to one website and from that site link to many other related sites. each related sites, and a person can have more than one site open at the same time.
a stimulus for remembering
- bad retrieval cue, maintenance rehearsal is not a very good way to get information into LTM is that saying something over and over gives only one kind of RC
Easiest way of Retrieving information
fit it in with what they already know, sound, more cues stored with a piece of information that easier the retrieval of that information will be.
the tendency for memory of information to be improved for related information, such as surroundings or physiological state, that is available when the memory is formed is also available when the memory is being retrieved
memories formed during a particular physiological or psychological will be easier to remember while in a similar state
-internal state emotions, emotions
example of state dependent
when you are fighting with someone, its much easier to remember all the bad things that person has done than to remember all the food times.
time, location, environment, environmental situation
type of memory retrieval in which the information to be retrieved must be pulled from memory with very few external cues.
the ability to match a piece of information or a stimulus to a stored image or fact
one feels as though one knows information but can only generate bits and pieces.(ex. recalling a name).
- although people may be able to say how long the word is or name letters that start or even end the word, they cannot retrieve the sound of actual spelling of the word to allow it to be pulled into the auditory recorder of STM so that it can be fully retrieved.
- forget about it, brain still works on it, come out later
Serial Position Effect
tendency of information at the beginning and end of a body of information to be remembered more accurately than information in the middle of the body of information
- things in the middle drop off
- commercial use this, put good stuff in the beginning and end because it is easiest to remember and put bad stuff in the middle because you wont remember as much
Primary effect- LTM
come first, words at the very beginning of the list tend to be remembered better than those in the middle of the list
- first few words, when the listener has nothing already in STM to interfere with their rehearsal,will receive far more rehearsal time than the words in middle, which are constantly being replaced by the next word on the list.
Recency Effect- STM
just heard, usually attributed to the fact that the last word, or two was just heart and still in short-term memory for easy retrieval, with no new words entering to push the most recent word or words out of memory.
- tendency to remember information at the end of a body of information better than the information at the beginning of it.
error of recognition in which people think that they recognize some stimulus that is not actually in memory.
Father Bernard Pagano
falsely identified for the series of robberies that were eventually confessed to by another man
Loftus "Protestor" Study-
Eyewitness testimony, not reliable
- memory is constantly changing
- what people see and hear after the fact can change their memories, influenced by other things
tendency of certain kinds of information to enter long term memory with little or no effortful encoding
- although some long term memories need extensive maintenance rehearsal of effortful encoding in the form of elaborative rehearsal to enter from STM into LTM, - -many other kinds of long-term memories seem to enter permanent storage with little or no effort at all
-type of automatic encoding that occurs because an unexpected event has strong emotional associations for the person remembering it.
-memories of highly emotional events can often seem vivid and detailed as if the person's mind took a flash picture of the moment in time
memories are literally built or reconstructed from the information stored away during encoding. each time a memory is retrieved it may be altered or revised in some way to include new information, or to exclude details that may be left out of the new reconstruction
the tendency to falsely believe, through revision of older memories to include newer information that one could have correctly predicted the outcome of an event
-false belief due to constructive process that one could/should have predicted outcome of an event
Constructive Memory Process
retrieval/content of memories altered by newer information, take other peoples memories and your memories into account
memory retrieval problems, cant separate what someone says, misleading information presented after event can affect memory accuracy for event
- the tendency of misleading information presented after an event to alter the memories of the event
Example of misinformation Effect
police investigators sometimes try to keep eye witness to crimes or accidents from talking with each other. the reason is that if one person tells the other about something she has seen, she other person may later remember the same detail even though he didnt not see it at the time. created by a person being exposed to information after the event. misleading information becomes part of the actual memory
False memory Syndrome
creation of inaccurate or false memories via other's suggestions, can be accomplished with hypnosis.
memory gets edited and changed when individuals are in a state of waking consciousness, alert and making an effort to retrieve information, how much more might memory be changed when individuals are being influenced by others or in an altered state of conscious such as hypnosis.
failure to properly store information for future use
Curve of Forgetting
Hermann Ebbinghaus,(1913), memorized a list, waited a specific amount of time, and then tried to retrieve the list, graphing his result each time.
- a graph showing a distinct pattern in which forgetting is very fast within the first hour after learning a list and then tapers off gradually
early studies, Ebbinghaus,1855, found that is important not to try to cram information you want to remember into your brain,
-spacing out ones study sessions will produce fat better retrieval of information studied in this way than does masses practice
failure to process information into memory
When Forgetting Can Occur?
Sensory- Encoding Failure
STM- Rehearsal Failure
LTM- Trace Decay
physical change in the brain that occurs when a memory is formed,
loss of memory due to the passage of time, during which the memory trace is not used.
fades away/ pushes it out
failure to effectively connect new information with prior knowledge due to poor elaboration
another name for decay, assuming that memories that are not used will eventually decay and disappear
a possible explanation of LTM forgetting is that although most long-term memories may be stored more or less permanently in the brain, through those memories may not always be accessible to attempted retrieval because other information interferes
one of the type of interference theory, the tendency for older or previously learned material to interfere with the learning and subsequent retrieval of new material
- information learned earlier interferes with information learned later
Example of Proactive Interference
someone gets a new cell phone number. people find themselves remembering their old cell phone number or some of its digits instead of the new cell phone number when they are trying to give the number to friends
Another type of interference theory, newer information interferes with the retrieval of older information
-memory problem that occurs when newer information prevents or interferes with the retrieval of older information
- information learned later interferes with information learned earlier
the changes that take place in the structure and function of neurons when a memory is formed
was identified as the part of the brain that is responsible for the formation of new long term memories
- area of brain responsible for the formation of LTMs
physical change in brain when the memory formed
responsible for determining what memories are stored and where memories are stored
two forms of severe loss of memory disorders caused by problems in the functioning the memory areas of the brain
the loss of memory from the point of injury backwards or loss of memory from the past.
the consolidation process, get disrupted and loses everything that was not already nearly finished.
Example of Retrograde Amnesia
computer saves the document every 10 minutes, wrote alot in the past ten minutes, power goes out, what you already saved is still intact, what wasn't saved in the past 10 minute was lost
- All memories in the process of being stored, but not yet permanent are lost
concussions are an example- a loss of memories from the point of injury or illness.
- difficulty remember anything new.
Example of Anterograde Amnesia
discovering that your hard drive has become defective, you can read the data that is on the hard drive but you cant store any new information
the inability to retrieve memories form much before age 3
the memory for events and facts related to one's personal life story.