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100 terms

Ch. 7: Differences in Verbal Styles

STUDY
PLAY
Animated
conveys emotional expressiveness and vitality
Axiomatic-deductive
present general principles then move to fill in specific details
Blind panel
not known to self but known to others
Collaborative dialogue
intercultural parties try to suspend their assumptions regarding how to conduct smooth conversations
collectivists
mutual-face and other-face orientations tend toward this
Complementary
matter-of-fact tone in delivering verbal message
Compound
master 2 languages in same context. One reality without feeling difference of context
Compound and Coordinate
two types of bilinguals
Concealment
(closedness) refers to the lack of disclosure or sharing of exclusive information about either the public self or the private self.
Coordinate
different situational context (home and school)
Deductive
big picture to specific
Difference of Complementary, Animated, and Understated Verbal Style
Animated and understated refer to the rhythms, emotional expressiveness, and intensity of tone of voice that accompany verbal content message. The complementary style refers to a matter-of-fact tone in delivering your verbal message
Direct versus Indirect verbal style
Differ in how they reveal the speaker's iuntentions through tone of voice and the straightforwardness of the content in the message
Direct verbal style
reveal speakers intentions w/ clarity and are enunciated with forthright tone of voice
Dramatic style
effusive metaphors, adjectives, stories to reinforce a point
Edward T Hall
founding father of intercultural communication
Empathetic speaker to nonnatives
Redonuciation exercise; repeat 2 verbs with similar meanings
Face
claimed sense of social self-worth that a person wants others to have of her or him
Face loss
treated in a way that challenges, threatens, or ignores our identity claims
Face-negotiation
Face is a sense of social self-worth a person wants others to have and there are two concerns in conversations: self-face and other-face. A facework are verbal and nonverbal behaviors to maintain or restore face loss or face-saving. We may think of face issues in terms of how to reject a request or interms of how to get our own requests granted with strategies like: open invitations, promises and in more collectivistic societies like appeals to duty.
Face-saving issues
how to protect our own or others face from being embarrassed
Facework
verbal and nonverbal behaviors to maintain or restore face loss and to uphold and honor face gain
Factual-inductive
present facts, then draw conclusion
Four high-context verbal styles
indirect style, animated understated style, formal style, and preference for silence
Four low-context verbal styles
direct style, complementary style, informal style, and preference for talkativeness
Hidden panel
known to self but unknown to others
High Context
Carlos was extremely relational and therefore was what from the multi-cultural workforce films
High context
collectivistic, large power distance and spiral relational and logic
High Context
contextual type of an indirect person
High Context
Intention or meaning is best conveyed through the context and nonverbal channels
High Context
Joy Luck Club scene with mother's comment about fur coat
High context
more emphasis on culture norms and history
High Context
mother humbling her cooking in the Joy Luck Club
High Context
relational harmony, mutual face saving, circumspective, verbal self-humbling style, female, silence, non-verbal nuances, Biz; have to know person (relational), affective
High context
Collectivists tend towards this type of context
High context
indirect verbal style, emotionally understated mode, self-humbling talk, and silence
How Beliefs are expressed in talk and silence.
Beliefs are expressed in talk and silence either in high-context cultures where silence can help understanding or from western rhetorical model where silence is viewed as ignorant lapses that should be filled with talk.
Indirect verbal style
statements tend to camoflage speaker's actual intentions and are carried out in softer tone
Individualists
self-face orientation tend to be who
inductive
specific cases begin to build case. Specific to general
Informal versus Formal verbal styles.
respecting unique, personal identities (informal) versus honoring prescribed power-based membership identities (formal)
Intercultural persuasion process
In ICC it means to require flexible intercultural persuasion skills and responsive intercultural face-work skills
Johari window is
Information about oneself is depicted as a window with four panels: open panel, hidden panel, blind panel and unknown panel.
Linear persuasion style
The linear persuasion style includes two forms: Factual-inductive (facts to conclusion) and the Axiomatic-deductive (principles to specific details)
Linear-logic versus spiral-logic persuasion.
Linear persuasion style (low-context) tends towards facts then details or principles to details and Spiral persuasion style (high-context) ranges from dramatic to subtle forms to reinforce messages.
Low Context
contextual type of a direct person
Low Context
George was linear and highly compartmentalized and was therefore consider what in the multi-cultural workforce films
Low Context
individual, small power distance and linear logic (A -> B -> X)
Low context
Rich from Joy Luck club at the dinner scene when he poured soy sauce over the mother's meal
Low Context
self-facing, verbally assertive, verbal self-enhancement, talkative, explicit, task and instrumental, compartmentalize and work versus relational
Low context
Individualists tend towards this type of context
Low v. High Contex
Direct v. Indirect; Complementary, Animated and Understated Verbal Styles; Informal v. Formal Verbal Styles; Beliefs Expressed in Talk and Silence
Modes of Persuasion
linear and spiral logic of persuasion, self-credentialing mode and self-humbling mode, and cross-cultural face-negotiation and requesting strategies
Ma
silence
Open panel
known to self and generalized others or a specific person
Other Countries
General to Specific
Other-face concern
interest in providing identity respect and support for the other persons interests or needs
Persuasion
the art of influencing someone to do something you want or to accept an idea you believe is important
Private Self
facets of the person that are potentially communicable but are not usually shared with others
Public Self
facets of the person that are readily available and are easily shared with others
Revealment
(openness) refers to the disclosure of information concerning the different facets of the public self and/or the private self
Self-credentialing
draw attention to ones abilities, accomplishments
Self disclosure
the willingness to reveal something about yourself and the willingness to pay attention to the other person's feedback about you are necessary to build a trusting intercultural relationship
Self-face concern
interest in upholding our own identities and favorable self-images
Self-humbling
verbal restraints, hesitations, and use of self-deprecation concerning ones performance
Social penetration theory
two dimensions of self-disclosure: Breadth (# of topics person is willing to share) and Depth (intimacy or emotionality shared)
Social reality
words used in language lexicon construct
Spir-Whorf theory
this explains cognitive formation
Spiral Logic
builds up relational atmosphere to go to view
Spiral persuasion style
The Spiral persuasion style ranges from the dramatic (metaphors, adjectives to reinforce point) to the Subtle (nonverbal gestures, analogies, hints to make message)
Strong
determines like time is determined by syntax of language and the classical form
Subtle style
hints, implicit analogies, subtle nonverbal gestures to dramatize the emotional impact of their message
Top CEO language
1. Brazil, 2. Netherlands, and 3. Swiss
self-disclosure and persuasion
Two concepts of Intercultural conversation process
Self-face and other-face
Two types of face concerns in conversations
Understated
displays more emotional restraint or stoicism
Unknown panel
not known to self or others
USA
specific to make case. A + B + C = D
Weak
influences as a soft form
yuan
relational karma
informal verbal style
emphasizes importance of informality, casualness, and role suspension in verbal communication
formal verbal style
emphasizes importance of upholding status-based and role-based interaction that reflects formality and large power distance
High Context
silence (ma) can make understanding possible
Western rhetorical model
silence viewed as empty pauses or ignorant lapses
Breadth
number of topics a person is willing to share
Depth
level of intimacy or emotional vulnerability shared
low-context communication
communication with an emphasis on how intention or meaning is best expressed through explicit verbal messages
low-context communicators
individuals tending to emphasize direct verbal style, animated conversational tone, informal verbal treatment, and talkativeness
high-context communication
emphasis on how intention or meaning can best be conveyed through the context (e.g., social roles or positions) and the nonverbal channels (e.g., pauses, silence, tone of voice) of the verbal message
high-context communicators
individuals tending to value indirect verbal style, understated or exaggerated conversational tone, and formal verbal treatment, emphasizing the importance of silence
linear persuasion style
style of persuasion in two forms: Factual-inductive (facts to conclusion) and the Axiomatic-deductive (principles to specific details)
The Spiral persuasion
persuasion style that ranges from the dramatic (metaphors, adjectives to reinforce point) to the Subtle (nonverbal gestures, analogies, hints to make message)
Self-face and other-face concern
two types of face concerns in conversations
Need to develop verbal sensitivity
Fundamental differences exist between LCC and HCC patterns
Need to develop verbal sensitivity
Individualists tend towards LCC, collectivists tend towards HCC
Need to develop verbal sensitivity
Individualists tend towards self-face orientation and collectivists tend towards mutual-face and other-face orientations
Need to develop verbal sensitivity
Individuals who use LCC prefer direct verbal style, matter-of-fact mode, self-credentialing enhancement and talkativeness
Need to develop verbal sensitivity
Individuals who use HCC prefer indirect verbal style, emotionally understated mode, self-humbling talk, and silence
Need to develop verbal sensitivity
Knowledge of verbal and nonverbal communication is needed to communicate across cultural and ethnic boundaries
Need to develop verbal sensitivity
Collaborative dialogue: intercultural parties try to suspend their assumptions regarding how to conduct smooth conversations